# Category ADVANCES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS – ECODESIGN AND ANALYSIS

## Ecodesign function

The probability P(F) represents the searched ecodesign function; a function that has multiple variables and lies between the values of 0 and 1, and is defined by f(Q=xi, H=yi, E=Zi). However, according to the nature of sets Q, H and E (independent or dependent) and the rules of multiplication in the probability theory, two possible cases (Figures 2a and 2b) may be presented; these are:

a. The sets Q, H, E are independent (Figure 2a): a condition which does not satisfy the searched objective because the probability of the intersection is an empty set. Thus, it may be expressed by the following equation:

f(Q=Xi, H=y, E=z) = P(F ) = P(0) = 0 (5)

b. The sets Q, H, E are dependent (Figure 2b and/or 2c): a condition that does satisfy the searched objective...

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## Application of probability principles to ecodesign function

1.2 Probability approach

To illustrate the model-set probability, let us consider the sample space Q that contains all the possible subsets (events) defined by Equation (1) and illustrated in Figure 3. Since the three key sets Q, H and E are composed of several variable elements associated to the different stages involved in the design process where each key set is assumed to fulfil a specific function; it can therefore be written that (Attaf, 2007):

Q = { x1, X2 , X3 , ….. , Xm}

H = { yi, У2, уз,……….. , yn } (2)

E = { zi, Z2, Z3,……. , Zp }

probabilistic measure. Figure 4 illustrates the different branches representing the possible events (Attaf, 2009).

1st proposition

2nd proposition

3rd proposition

иПНПЕ) QnHnE ОПНПЕ ОПНПЕ ОПНПЕ ОПНПЕ ОПНПЕ ОПНПЕ...

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## Ecodesign model and sample space

As it was shown in Figure 2c, the interaction between the three Q-H-E aspects yields the apparition of a certain number of events, which are illustrated in Figure 3. Each event is assumed to accomplish one or several functions that are defined by the following subsets (Attaf, 2007)

• Subset A (■): characterized by an assured quality, a non-protected health and a non-

preserved environment.

• Subset B (■): characterized by an assured quality, a protected health and a non-

preserved environment.

• Subset C (■): characterized by a non-assured quality, a protected health and a non-

preserved environment.

• Subset D (■): characterized by a non-assured quality, a protected health and a preserved

environment.

• Subset S (■): characterized by an assured quality, a non-protected health and ...

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## Evolution of the interaction between Q-H-E aspects

The main condition of ecodesign can be reached when the interaction between Q, H, E aspects yields a common area of intersection between these aspects, i. e., Qt^Ht^E. The original diagram (Figure 2a) shows health, quality and environment as three separate aspects that operate independently from each other. Joining the Q, H, E aspects gives rise to a new diagram fulfilling the ecodesign condition (Attaf, 2007) that is characterised by the subset F resulting from this intersection (Figure 2b). The three dots (л) above the character F are only a brief description of the diagram illustrated in Figure 2a, showing interaction between health, quality and environment aspects...

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## Ecodesign of composite materials and structures

1.1 Position of ecodesign approach within sustainable development concept

According to most scientific results related to the protection of biodiversity, global warming and climate change may have severe effects on human health and the environment. To improve the well-being and living conditions of present and future generations, it is important that the negative impacts generated from human and industrial activities should be seriously considered in all design phases of a new development. To this end, the sustainable development concept is a strong key issue aiming to achieve the previously discussed objective, which is obviously based on three main criteria or "pillars"; these are: (i) environmental sustainability, (ii) economic sustainability and (iii) social sustainability...

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## Generation of New Eco-friendly Composite Materials via the Integration of Ecodesign Coefficients

Brahim Attaf

Expert in Composite Materials & Structures

France

1. Introduction

Thanks to their excellent formability, their mass-saving advantage, their high stiffness-to- density and strength-to-density ratios, i. e., E/p and ст/р and the greater freedom to tailor these high properties in the desired orientation and position, fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are used in many fields of engineering, from architectural structures, ship superstructures, automobiles, bridge decks, machine parts, dams and reservoirs, to the high technology of the modern aerospace industries (Attaf & Hollaway, 1990a, b). Furthermore, these lightweight materials have some precise objectives, which cannot be reached with some other conventional materials...

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## Expert in Composite Materials

Studies and research activities conducted in the field of high-technology materials show that advanced composite materials are successfully used in key components for many fields of applications, from aerospace & automobile industries, marine construc­tion, renewable energy, modern medicine to micro-/nano-material technologies, in­cluding other more complex civil and mechanical engineering assemblies. In addition to this variety of applications, the considerable increase in demand of these smart ma­terials will open up many opportunities to design and manufacture new products for the future. However, these products have to satisfy sustainable development require­ments, which can be achieved by a balanced equation that simultaneously guarantees economic growth and environmental protection...

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