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Materials and the. Environment

Michael F. Ashby

The environment is a system. Human society, too, is a system. The sys­tems coexist and interact, weakly in some ways, strongly in others. When two already complex systems interact, the consequences are hard to pre­dict. One consequence has been the damaging impact of industrial society on the environment and the ecosystem in which we live and on which we depend. Some impacts have been evident for more than a century, prompt­ing remedial action that, in many cases, has been successful. Others are emerging only now; among them, one of the most unexpected is changes in global climate that, if allowed to continue, could become very damaging.

These and many other ecoconcerns derive from the ways in which we use energy and materials...


Generation of New Eco-friendly Composite Materials via the Integration of Ecodesign Coefficients

Brahim Attaf

Expert in Composite Materials & Structures


1. Introduction

Thanks to their excellent formability, their mass-saving advantage, their high stiffness-to- density and strength-to-density ratios, i. e., E/p and ст/р and the greater freedom to tailor these high properties in the desired orientation and position, fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are used in many fields of engineering, from architectural structures, ship superstructures, automobiles, bridge decks, machine parts, dams and reservoirs, to the high technology of the modern aerospace industries (Attaf & Hollaway, 1990a, b). Furthermore, these lightweight materials have some precise objectives, which cannot be reached with some other conventional materials...


Expert in Composite Materials

Studies and research activities conducted in the field of high-technology materials show that advanced composite materials are successfully used in key components for many fields of applications, from aerospace & automobile industries, marine construc­tion, renewable energy, modern medicine to micro-/nano-material technologies, in­cluding other more complex civil and mechanical engineering assemblies. In addition to this variety of applications, the considerable increase in demand of these smart ma­terials will open up many opportunities to design and manufacture new products for the future. However, these products have to satisfy sustainable development require­ments, which can be achieved by a balanced equation that simultaneously guarantees economic growth and environmental protection...