What is computer graphics and what are the conceptual tasks of research in this area? To the average person the term still conveys more or less the design of logos and the manipulation of pictures with the help of image-editing programs. However, during the past four decades, computer graphics has evolved into an innovative multifaceted field of research and computing that affects many other sciences. In many areas and for many problems we can best convey an understanding through images that trigger our sense with the highest capability: our eye. And, what is more, aside from algorithms, formulas, and tables, the computer graphics scientist often is able to create beauty...>
The audit and selection tools developed in the text are implemented in the CES Edu 09 software, a powerful materials information system that is widely used for both teaching and design. The book is self-contained; access to the software is not a prerequisite. The software is a useful adjunct to the text, enhancing the learning experience and providing access to data for a much wider range of materials. It allows realistic selection studies that properly combine multiple constraints and the construction of tradeoff plots in the same format as those of the text.
No book of this sort is possible without advice, constructive criticism, and ideas from others. Numerous colleagues have been generous with their time and thoughts...>
The nature conservation movement has seized upon the inability to adequately fund the maintenance of traditional horticulturally based plantings as an opportunity to increase the use of native ‘habitat’ plantings in urban landscapes. This has occurred to a considerable degree over the past 20 years in Britain, mirroring what had happened much earlier in some other European countries. This has been a very positive development, the most obvious product of which has been substantial areas of young woodlands, which, although rather ecologically depauperate, should enrich with time. This movement has not, however, been able to fully address the latent needs left unfulfilled by the decline of traditional horticultural planting...>
James Hitchmough and Nigel Dunnett
Although this book is potentially relevant to many urban contexts, it is most strongly aimed at the ‘public’ and ‘semi-public’ landscape. Some of these landscapes are public parks of one sort or another. The remainder are a difficult-to-characterise mix of spaces around public housing, commercial developments and institutions, car parks, left-over spaces from development, structure plantings of massed trees and shrubs, and strips along paths, roads and other corridors. Taken as a whole, these often very ordinary places are the landscapes we are most familiar with and which inform, and perhaps even shape, our attitudes to the world around us...>
Michael F. Ashby
The environment is a system. Human society, too, is a system. The systems coexist and interact, weakly in some ways, strongly in others. When two already complex systems interact, the consequences are hard to predict. One consequence has been the damaging impact of industrial society on the environment and the ecosystem in which we live and on which we depend. Some impacts have been evident for more than a century, prompting remedial action that, in many cases, has been successful. Others are emerging only now; among them, one of the most unexpected is changes in global climate that, if allowed to continue, could become very damaging.
These and many other ecoconcerns derive from the ways in which we use energy and materials...>
Expert in Composite Materials & Structures
Thanks to their excellent formability, their mass-saving advantage, their high stiffness-to- density and strength-to-density ratios, i. e., E/p and ст/р and the greater freedom to tailor these high properties in the desired orientation and position, fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are used in many fields of engineering, from architectural structures, ship superstructures, automobiles, bridge decks, machine parts, dams and reservoirs, to the high technology of the modern aerospace industries (Attaf & Hollaway, 1990a, b). Furthermore, these lightweight materials have some precise objectives, which cannot be reached with some other conventional materials...>
Studies and research activities conducted in the field of high-technology materials show that advanced composite materials are successfully used in key components for many fields of applications, from aerospace & automobile industries, marine construction, renewable energy, modern medicine to micro-/nano-material technologies, including other more complex civil and mechanical engineering assemblies. In addition to this variety of applications, the considerable increase in demand of these smart materials will open up many opportunities to design and manufacture new products for the future. However, these products have to satisfy sustainable development requirements, which can be achieved by a balanced equation that simultaneously guarantees economic growth and environmental protection...>