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Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to

• explain how quality is defined and measured.

• define total quality management.

• explain the empowerment of employees.

• distinguish between internal and external customers.

• outline the steps in a Total Quality management program.


quality total quality management

A NEW CONCERN FOR AN OLD IDEA_________________

The end of World War II left the economy of the world tilted heavily in favor of the United States. Europe and most of Asia were left with only skeletal remains of their prewar industrial capability. American factories were intact and able to convert from the production of war goods to the manufacture of countless products and machines needed by the rest of the world...



Just as the development of automobiles negated the need for buggy makers, the use of word processors has sent typewriter manufacturers into bankruptcy. The incorporation of new technology into horticulture companies has created some problems. The one most common to all types of businesses is the impact on the workforce. Most upgrades in technology necessitate the retraining of some employees. That may or may not involve an expense. Some technical advances also displace workers or require their replacement with better-educated workers who expect higher salaries, and who may not be easily recruited. Older work­ers, long in their service and loyalty to a company, and knowledgeable of existing technology, may resist accepting the new knowledge and techniques...



Futuring is always fun. Fortune tellers have been reading tea leaves for many years, hoping to foresee what will happen next. The early years of a new century seem to amplify the excitement and the expectations that wonderful new things loom on the horizon. It seems safe to say that Americans are expecting this country to lead the world into the Age of Technology, as the 21st century has already been dubbed, just as we took the lead in science during the 20th century. The businesses, scien­tists, educators, practitioners, and customers of the green industry can anticipate further changes in how ornamental horticulture is practiced and presented in the near and distant future...



Seven samples of ceramic materials; glasses and marbles with different mineralogy and effective conductivities were selected. These samples were labelled from P1 to P7. These materials are classified into two types of samples, rock marbles and ceramic glasses. The rocks were two grey-red gneissic granite samples labelled P1 & P2 and the other five were either provided through a private communication with Dr. Vlastimil Bohac from the Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAS) or selected from the A-Z materials database within the www. amazon. com website...


Running and maintenance

People who own and run a water feature will soon become disillusioned with it if it costs more than a modest amount to maintain. Planning should thus aim to avoid high main­tenance and running expenses. A number of very creatively successful water features have been closed because of techni­cal problems, the need for frequent repair work and unduly high running costs.

Traditionally fountains and other running water features are closed in winter. But it is possible to run them all the year round if appropriate preventive measures are taken, like frost­proof water storage facilities and a heated water supply.

A thorough planning approach will pay particular atten­tion to the later running of the water feature. More or less elaborate solutions will be selected according to location...


The Retail Florist Industry

The green industry business that remains most tied to its handcrafting roots is retail floristry. However, even it has become high-tech in com­parison to its recent past. While worldwide wire service is not new, the method and speed of transmission are as current as the latest telecom­munications technology can make them. Florists across the country and around the world are linked by means of numerous cooperative agree­ments that enable customers to make a call to their local flower shop and send flowers thousands of miles away for arrival that same day...



The development of the technology of today and tomorrow has been either made possible or accelerated by the ongoing evolution of com­puters. The scientific breakthroughs of the space program have ushered in an era of nearly instant communications that link people and compa­nies worldwide. Researchers have machines, apparatus, and techniques available for their use that early pioneers in science could have never envisioned. Growers now press buttons to mix soil rather than lift shov­els. They let sensors determine when to water rather than sticking their fingers into the soil. Golf course superintendents consult their on-site weather station to determine the advisability of applying chemicals or preparing work schedules...


From the idea to the finished object

Section through purification biotope

Water can be a problem in urban open spaces. Building water features seems prohibitively expensive, too many things can go wrong, and maintenance is too expensive. But when the water quality is right, pumps, filters and control devices are working properly, the parts of the building that come in contact with the water are not damaged and when water, along with light and sound effects, turns boring places into exciting ones, no one wants to be without it. But however easily and light­heartedly water flows and splashes – it needs expert handling in urban landscapes.

Constructed water features are always individual objects. They emerge from interplay between the possibilities offered by the site and clients’ and planners’ ideas and wishes...


Graphic Visualization

Several types of computer graphic visualization systems enjoy popular­ity among horticulturists, most of which are adaptations of programs developed earlier for other industries.

CAD (computer-aided design) systems are accelerated drafting sys­tems, designed to do what centuries of draftsmen have done with their T-square and pencils. Computer drafting has increased mainly because of a PC-based CAD software program named AutoCAD (a registered trademark of AutoDesk, Inc.). Due to the necessity for hardware, soft­ware, and user training, AutoCAD is an expensive investment for a com­pany. It is not ready to use on delivery to the office...


Safety and freedom to choose

Safety is the single most important issue relating to all kinds of naturalistic ecological planting in public urban settings, but particularly to woody vegetation. Whilst both anecdotal evidence and research suggest that thoughtful design can contribute to a sense of safety (Jorgensen et al. 2002), it seems clear that there are many people who will remain wary of naturalistic ecological plantings. Equally, there is evidence that such people might value the existence of such plantings whilst not wanting to interact with them (Tartaglia-Kershaw 1980; Kaplan and Kaplan 1989). Ways of addressing these concerns are suggested below.

– One method is to provide a gradient from intensive and overtly designed landscapes to

extensive and naturalistic ones (Manning 1982; Dowse 1987)...