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Safety and freedom to choose

Safety is the single most important issue relating to all kinds of naturalistic ecological planting in public urban settings, but particularly to woody vegetation. Whilst both anecdotal evidence and research suggest that thoughtful design can contribute to a sense of safety (Jorgensen et al. 2002), it seems clear that there are many people who will remain wary of naturalistic ecological plantings. Equally, there is evidence that such people might value the existence of such plantings whilst not wanting to interact with them (Tartaglia-Kershaw 1980; Kaplan and Kaplan 1989). Ways of addressing these concerns are suggested below.

– One method is to provide a gradient from intensive and overtly designed landscapes to

extensive and naturalistic ones (Manning 1982; Dowse 1987)...


Types of provision

The type of toilet described is based on the method of disposing of the sewage, and related requirements for the structure and other aspects of construction such as ventilation, washing facilities and so on. There are five possible options for sewage disposal, as follows.

Composting toilets

In these the toilet seat is set above a box or hole into which all sewage accumulates. If the moisture content can be kept reasonably low, for example by the addition of soil, ashes or bark, then the material breaks down into a relatively odour-free compost, which can be emptied from sewage receptacles at the back of the toilet building and safely disposed of in a suitable location.

There are various proprietary makes that have developed this type for relatively low-use sites...



There can be many and varied reasons behind planning a new process industry or a large reconstruction project. The underlying reasons are often associated with gov­ernmental industrial policies, employment policies, and so on. Normally there is also some form of business strategy based upon a business concept. If limited to development projects of new computerised control systems with an increased level of automation, the definition of goals often becomes more diffuse. When Ergolab car­ried out a series of investigations in Swedish process industries, the operators often questioned the motivation behind the introduction of new computerised systems...


Appendix – Useful numbers and conversions


A1 Introduction A.1 Introduction

Quantitative analysis needs numbers. Many of those needed to understand and quantify eco-aspects of material production and use are presented in the Chapters of the text.

■ Table 2.1: approximate efficiency factors for energy conversion and the associated CO2 emission per useful MJ.

■ Table 6.5: the energy content of fossil fuels and the CO2 they emit when burnt.

■ Table 6.6: the energy efficiency of electricity generation and the related CO2 per useful kWhr.

■ Table 6.7: the energy and CO2 costs of alternative modes of transport.

■ Table 9.6: the energy and CO2 rating of cars as a function of mass.

■ Chapter 12: data sheets listing the attributes of 47 of the most widely used materials.

This appendix assembles further useful numbers and conversio...


Public involvement in relation to naturalistic ecological planting

It seems likely that a clear consensus as to the appearance and characteristics of ecological planting will be uncommon among the general public. Sharing information is therefore likely to be an important part of the involvement process (though not the only part). Realistic photomontages showing the anticipated appearance of the new plantings may be a helpful means of both giving information and getting feedback about people’s reactions to the proposals. Visits to sites where successful ecological planting has been employed may also be useful. Information giving should not be restricted to issues such as appearance, form and siting, but should include more fundamental issues, such as the whole raison d’etre of ecological plantings, and there should be an emphasis on consensus building.



Affine Transformation

A mathematical function such as a translation, rotation, scaling, or shearing that transforms a line into a line or a plane into another plane. Using a trick, such functions, which are usually difficult to combine due to the nonlinear behavior of the translation, can be implemented with just one matrix multiplication: the number of coordinates is increased by one, so-called homogenous coordinates are used (see also below).


Usually images are defined with three color values: red, green, and blue (when printing: yellow, magenta, cyan, and most often black). In computer graphics, additionally an alpha channel is needed to define the transparency of the pixel values. This is needed when a small image is used as a texture (see below) during rendering...


Korean Garden Forms

As previously mentioned, if the standards for a traditional Japanese garden or Chinese yuanlin are applied to the Korean residential setting, no garden form as such exists. Thus it is clearly necessary to adopt a completely different standard by which to define the gardens of Korea, and this standard might be termed the “uncultivated” garden. Based on this standard, traditional Korean gardens can be summarized as follows:

Inner Gardens Within the Residence

Prospect and borrowed scenery are the foundation upon which inner gardens (madang) are composed and have traditionally served as essential prerequisites in the selec­tion of residential sites, though more as underlying factors than openly recognized conditions.

In the composition of the traditional Korean residence, open interior sp...



The following list of references is related to the chapters where they are most relevant. It will be noted that there is a substantial body of work on recreation planning, quite a lot on interpretation but much less on design. Access for people with disabilities is also well covered. Many of the design references are in the form of handbooks, manuals or design detail sheets produced by various agencies for their own purposes.


Driver, Brown and Petersen (eds) (1991) Benefits of Leisure, Venture Publishing, State College, Pennsylvania.

Edington, J. M. and Edington, M. A. (1986) Ecology, Recreation and Tourism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gray, D. and Pellegrino, D. (1973) Reflections on the Recreation and Park Movement: A Book of Readings, Brown, Dubuque, Iowa.

Hill, ...


Results and discussion

Two types of multiphase composite materials have been selected, namely; wood and ceramics. As it was mentioned in section 2, in particular we investigate the effect on thermal conduction due to structural morphology in woods and structural mineralogy in ceramics.

4.1 Woods

It is known that wood is a fiber-based ligno-cellulosic material (Avramidis & Lau, 1992). In this type of materials, the crystalline structure of cellulose chains may be altered, due to temperature variations, leading to a permanent loss in strength and considerable changes in physical behaviour including its ability to conduct heat. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between the thermal conductivity of wood and the various factors affecting this property...


Changing World

M any of the great accomplishments in art have developed in a period of great spiritual unrest, not at all unlike the present. The struggle itself has usually resulted in the birth of new ideas, in the development of new mate­rials and new methods, and in the beginning of an upward step in the prog­ress of humanity. Some of the drawing and painting on the walls of caverns in the Pyrenees Mountains made by Cro-Magnon men at least fifty thousand years ago have never been excelled in design and draftsmanship.211 They repre­sent drawing and painting under the most difficult conditions. It is interest­ing to note that in style they are as modern as any drawings being made to-day...