From Lily’s and Chen’s design program, we developed several bubble diagrams, all of which could be developed into designs. For our example, we drew design templates and laid out the templates

TABLE 10.5 User analysis for Lily’s and Chen’s Bathroom Design. Information for preparing the user analysis would come from the needs assessment forms. More information about sustainability, materials, color, and style could be added.

Activity Space



Fixtures, Fittings, Furniture, Etc.


Space and Relation­ships






Shower area-full body shower, wash hair, shave legs, relaxation

Lily, Chen


tile shower, 60" x 60" (1 524 mm x 1524 mm); no threshold, interior seat (flip-up); pressure balance control with o...



Meet Lily and Chen. Their bathroom remodeling project is an example of how to prepare a design program. We interviewed Lily and Chen at their home. We used the various forms and checklists from chapter 5, "Assessing Needs," to collect information for their design project. Then, we developed this design program.

After you read the design program, look at one of the designs that were prepared for Lily and Chen. Do you think the design meets their needs? Is the design solution functional, safe, and convenient? Use the Bathroom Planning Checklists (Table 10.3 and Table 10.4) to evaluate the plan.

This sample design program focuses on space planning, the emphasis in this book. If you were developing a design program, you will give more attention to color, style, and visual impact.

A Sample Desi...


Evaluating and Checking

Begin the evaluation of your plan by scoring your design against the Bathroom Planning Guidelines using the checklist in Table 10.3. This is an important step to make sure you have developed a design that is functional as well as safe.


FIGURE 10.12 The custom shower and jetted tub are added to the elevation drawing started in Figure 10,11, Additional details, such as towel bars and plumbing fittings, can now be added to this drawing for clients Adia and Leroy,


Review your plan against each Guideline on the checklist. Your design must meet or exceed all the

code requirements and should meet the "Recommended" Planning Guidelines, unless there are

extenuating circumstances that prevent this from happening.

Depending on your client and their needs, you will al...


Verify the Dimensions

After you have placed each item on the dimensioned drawing, verify all your dimensions. Start at one corner and check your dimensions across the wall. In our example (Figures 10.8, 10.9, and 10.10), we can verify our dimensions as follows:

177 inches

4496 mm

total wall length

– 21 inches

– 533 mm

clearance from wall to centerline of toilet

156 inches

3963 mm

– 21 inches

– 533 mm

clearance from centerline of toilet to wall

135 inches

3430 mm

– 4/ inches

– 115 mm

wall thickness for toilet compartment

130/ inches

3315 mm

– 2 inches

– 51 mm

extended tub deck

128/ inches

3264 mm

– 72 inches

– 1829 mm

jetted tub

56/ inches

1435 mm

– 2 inches

– 51 mm

extended tub deck

54/ inches

1384 mm

– 6/ inche...


Finishing the Floor Plan

After the priority areas are placed and dimensioned, add the other fixtures and features in the plan. Continue checking dimensions by subtracting the amount of clearances for each fixture from the remaining wall space. Be sure to verify dimensions in each direction, such as each side and in front of the fixture. Allow for door swings.

Sometimes, at this point, the dimensions do not work out. You may find that your total space, for fixtures, cabinetry, and clearances comes to more or less than the length of a wall. If this is the case, you may need to consider different alternatives.

If you have extra space, you may decide to increase the clearances around the fixtures. This is a good solution if you do not have a lot of extra space...



Start your dimensioned design drawing with the priority areas of the plan. These are the ele­ments that are not moveable, demand the most space, or are most important to the client. For example, you might start your dimensioned drawing with the toilet area because plumbing con­nections dictate the location. Or you might start with a shower, because that is going to be the focal element.

Подпись: FIGURE 10.7 A rough elevation sketch, taken from the visual diagram in Figure 10,6, begins to show vertical relationships and encourages you to begin thinking about details such as the placement of plumbing fittings and door swings, NKBA

Let’s say you are going to start with the toilet area. Place the toilet, draw the centerline, and dimen­sion the needed clearances on either side of the toilet...


Three Dimensions and Vertical Diagrams

Very early in the design process, think in three dimensions. For example, placing the toilet next to the vanity may work fine in plan, but how will it look vertically? We experience space in multiple dimensions, so we must design for all perspectives.

After you have developed one or more visual diagrams that appear to work in plan, develop some three-dimensional sketches. Elevation sketches of a wall, to scale, are useful to evaluate spatial relationships of fixtures, cabinetry, and structural features. Design templates of elevation views can speed the process. You may wish to make notes on your elevations, as you did on the room outlines.

Many computer programs used in design drawing will generate perspective views...



Bubble diagrams suggest ways to arrange spaces in the bathroom. Now it is time to see if these ideas can be translated into a design that will work in the actual space. This is the development of the visual diagram.

Using design templates, try multiple layouts in the room outline. Use the ideas generated by the bubble diagrams to guide your work. Refer to the information on the room outline to see if your design ideas are possible within the existing space.

Подпись: FIGURE 10.6 The visual diagram, for Adia's and Leroy's project, uses the room outline from Figure 10,5, and bubble diagram from Figure 10,1, Using design templates, the only area of overlap is in clearances in front of the lavatory, shower, and tub, However, this layout has adequate clear floor space to meet Planning Guideline 4, NKBA
You will want to try a number of different layouts before you achieve the best solution. As you consider a possible layout, review the information on your room outline that details project param­eters. Refer back to the design program, especially the user analysis, to remind yourself what the design layout needs to accomplish.

If you a...



An important foundation for producing your visual diagram, and eventually your design drawing, is the room outline. The room outline is a scaled drawing of the perimeter of the bathroom space. Prepare a drawing of all walls and fixed structural or architectural features, such as win­dows and doors.

The information you need to complete the room outline should be found on the following needs assessment forms from chapter 5: Form 7: Dimensions of Mechanical Devices; Form 8: Window Measurements; Form 9: Door Measurements; and Form 10: Fixture Measurements.

In some bathroom design projects, walls, windows, doors, and other structural features are fixed, and cannot be moved or altered...



Moving from the design program to the completed design solution is an exciting and creative process. It is also a process that requires accuracy and verification. In this section, we will discuss a process for moving from the design program to a dimensioned design drawing of your design solution. We will emphasize the importance of checking and rechecking dimensions to verify that your design solution will work in "real space." This section tells you how to manage the technical details—you supply the creativity!


We discussed moving, in the design process, from visualizing the activity spaces with a bubble diagram to developing a visual diagram. As you take your conceptual ideas, the bubble diagrams, and begin refining them, it is important to begin working to scale...