Category BUILDING CHAIRS

MAKING THE BACK

Подпись: The slats on the backs of chairs can be left unadorned or embellished with hand-painted motifs or carvings. Here, a scroll saw cuts a decorative design in a slat.
MAKING THE BACK

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PREPARING THE MORTISES

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Подпись:Подпись: Mortise outlineMAKING THE BACK Marking the mortises

The first step in making the back is to lay out the mortises for the slats on the posts. Clamp the two pieces of square post stock side-by-side on a work surface. Mark a centerline down the length of each post and use this as a guide for centering the mortises. Then use a piece of slat stock to outline the position of the mortises on one post blank. Determine the position of the slats by taking into account the number of slats, the length of the post, and the spac­ing between each slat. Use the marked blank as a template for the other post, transferring the finished outline with the aid of a square (left). [4]

MAKING THE BACK

2 Routing the mortises

Secure one of the post blanks between bench dogs...

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ASSEMBLING THE. SEAT AND LEGS

ASSEMBLING THE. SEAT AND LEGS

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Подпись: The use of contrasting wood for the wedges in the leg tenons is one way of providing added visual appeal while reinforcing the joint. In the chair shown above, wedges of pan ferro have been hammered into the tenon in a leg made from cherry. Installing the legs in the seat

Place the seat upside-down on a clearance board narrower than the gap between the mortises for the back legs. Insert the leg in its mortises and tap it with a dead-blow hammer until the tenon is wedged tightly in place. Repeat for the remaining legs (above). [3]

3 Trimming the wedges

Holding the chair steady by one leg, trim the wedges and tenons flush to the seat with a flush-cutting saw (above). Finally, sand the surface smooth.

 

SHOP TIP

 

Drying green wood tenons in hot sand

if you are making your chair from green wood you need to dry the leg, post, and stretcher tenons before final assembly.

The dry wood will then absorb moisture from the mortises and swell when the chair is assembled...

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PREPARING THE SEAT AND LEGS

PREPARING THE SEAT AND LEGSПодпись: The traditional way to drill mortises in a chair seat for the posts and legs is with a brace and bit, as shown in the following pages, but you can also use a drill press. With either method you will need to drill a compound angle that is raked to the front or back and splayed out to the side. If you are using a drill press, the correct angle of the forward or backward rake is set by tilting the machine's table—or a tilting table jig—to the appropriate angle. Then position the seat blank so the appropriate splay angle reference line (right) is aligned with the drill bit and the column at the back of the machine.MARKING AND BORING POST AND LEG MORTISES

PREPARING THE SEAT AND LEGS

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Laying out the seat and the mortise outlines

Lay the seat blank face-up on a work surface, mark the center of two adjacent sides and use a carpenter’s square to extend the lines to the opposite sides of the blank, bisecting the center of the seat blank. The resulting grid will help you draw a symmetrical outline for the seat. To mark the outline, either use an existing chair and copy it or create your own design using the dimensions in the chart on page 14 as a guideline. In each corner of the seat you will need to mark a mortise for a leg. The back of the seat will also require an extra mortise in each corner for the chair’s posts. Use a measuring tape to ensure that the mortises are perfectly symmetrical...

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ANATOMY OF A SLAB.-AND-STICK CHAIR

 

Peg (page 63)

Secures the slats in the post mortises. Like the wedges, the pegs are made of a contrasting hardwood for visual appeal

 

Slat mortise (page 61)

Pouted with mortising hit while post is still square

 

Slat (page 63)

Usually spaced an equal distance from adjoining slats. The curve should fit com­fortably against the back of the person who will use the chair

 

Seat (page 54)

Usually 1A to 2 inches thick; made of kiln – dried, edge-glued boards and cut to size. Various hand and power tools can be used to shape the seat to conform to human form. Green wood can also be used; it is easier to shape than kiln-dried wood

 

Kerfed tenon (page 56)

Cuts are made with back – saw or band saw to accept wood wedges; in green wood assemb...

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SLAB-AND-STICK CHAIRS

Подпись: The slats for a ladder-back chair like the one shown on page 50 can be bent dry, using the jig shown above. Made from two thin wood strips face-glued together, each slat is held by a web clamp against a form, which is cut to the desired curve.

The Windsor chair, with its independent back and leg assemblies anchored to a solid seat, and the post-and-rail chair—or simple stick chair— in which the back is an exten­sion of the rear legs, have long been favorites with wood­workers. Windsors are noted for both comfort and elegance, but they arc a challenge to build.

Most spies call for steam-bend­ing many of the parts, such as the continuous arms. The joints must also be cut to very close tolerances. Simple stick chairs, on the other hand, are easier to assemble; most designs feature simple round mortise-and-tenon joinery.

This chapter will show you how to build a hybrid of these two styles, a slab-and-stick chair like the one shown on page 50...

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. ASSEMBLING THE CHAIR

GLUING UP THE FRONT AND BACK ASSEMBLIES

. ASSEMBLING THE CHAIR

Spreading the glue

A frame chair is assembled in two steps: First, the back and front leg assemblies are glued up separately, as shown above and on page 48, then the leg assemblies are joined with the side seat rails (page 49). Start by test-fitting the chair com­ponents—the legs, the crest and back rails, the seat rails, and the slats. Use a chisel to pare away excess wood from any excessively tight joints. If you will be screwing the chair seat to

the seat rails, drill the holes through the rails (page 77). Once the rails are ready, cut a half-dozen wood clamping pads, pre­pare three bar clamps, then apply glue to the joints of the rear leg assembly...

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FRAME CHAIR JOINERYj

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CUTTING STANDARD BLIND TENONS

FRAME CHAIR JOINERYj

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Sawing the tenon cheeks

You can cut standard blind tenons in the rails quickly and accurately on your table saw with a commercial tenoning jig. The model above slides in the miter slot. Outline the tenons on the ends of the rails, using your seat template (page 27) as a guide. Set the cutting height to the tenon length. Using a wood pad to protect the workpiece, clamp a rail to the jig end-up. Adjust the jig sideways to align one of the tenon marks with the blade. After making the first cut, turn the rail around to cut the other tenon cheek...

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ANATOMY OF A FRAME CHAIR

Подпись: Greet rail (page 32) Anchors tope of elate. Shaped to fit the back; upper edge can be curved Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:ANATOMY OF A FRAME CHAIR

Pear leg (page 23)

Cut from a single length of solid stock. Shaped to suit the shape of users back and balance the chair visually, top ends may be chamfered for decorative effect. Section of rear leg above seat sometimes referred to as a stile

Side seat rail (page 33)

Supports the seat. Angled inward at the back; joined to front and rear seat rails by angled tenons. Bottom edge may have a bead for decoration

Front seat rail (page 36)

Supports the seat. Joined to the front legs by blind mortise-and-tenons; bot­tom edge may have a bead for decoration

ANATOMY OF A FRAME CHAIRANATOMY OF A FRAME CHAIRANATOMY OF A FRAME CHAIRANATOMY OF A FRAME CHAIR

ANATOMY OF A FRAME CHAIRShop-made templates for frame chairs are like wooden blueprints drawn to scale, providing the exact dimensions of all the frame pieces as well as the positions of their mortises and tenons...

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A GALLERY OF CHAIR STYLES

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Подпись:A GALLERY OF CHAIR STYLES

Подпись: Toronto furniture maker Michael Fortune contrasts the warmth of exotic hardwood with modern design in his chairs. The Macassar ebony armchair shown above features laminated curved arms and legs, and fine details such as wool and silver thread upholstery and silver wire inlay set into the slats.

Подпись:Подпись:Подпись: Windsor chair An 13th-Century American variation of the Windsor design that features a single continuous arm made of steamed wood supported by turned spindles

Apart from the common thread of providing seating and a set of legs to support the seat, chairs can be as dif­ferent as the craftsmen who build them and the people for whom they are made. The history of chair design is one of indi­vidual innovation blended with the tech­nology and tastes prevailing in the chair maker s lifetime.

The remaining pages of this chapter present a sampling of some of the more influential designs of the past 2500 years. Some of these styles are named after the furniture maker who developed them, like Thomas Chippendale or Sam Maloof. Others are associated with the monarch in power when the style flourished, such as Queen Anne...

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SELECTING AND ORDERING WOOD

CALCULATING BOARD FEET

Ordering lumber by the board foot

The “board foot’’ is a unit of measurement used to calculate the volume of a given amount of stock. It is commonly used with hardwood lum­ber. As shown in the illustration at right, the standard board foot is equivalent to a piece that is 1 inch thick, 12 inches wide, and 12 inches long. To calculate the number of board feet in a piece of wood, multiply its three dimensions together. Then, divide the result by 144 if the dimensions are in inches, or by 12 if just one dimension is in feet.

The formula for a standard board:

Г x 12і x 12* = 144 = 1 (or 1-х 12ex Г* 12 = 1)

So, if you had a 6-foot-long plank that is 1 inch thick and 4 inches wide, you would calculate the board feet as follows: Гх4,х6| = 12 = 2 (or 2 board fe...

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