PREPARING THE MORTISES
Marking the mortises
The first step in making the back is to lay out the mortises for the slats on the posts. Clamp the two pieces of square post stock side-by-side on a work surface. Mark a centerline down the length of each post and use this as a guide for centering the mortises. Then use a piece of slat stock to outline the position of the mortises on one post blank. Determine the position of the slats by taking into account the number of slats, the length of the post, and the spacing between each slat. Use the marked blank as a template for the other post, transferring the finished outline with the aid of a square (left). 
2 Routing the mortises
Secure one of the post blanks between bench dogs...
Installing the legs in the seat
Place the seat upside-down on a clearance board narrower than the gap between the mortises for the back legs. Insert the leg in its mortises and tap it with a dead-blow hammer until the tenon is wedged tightly in place. Repeat for the remaining legs (above). 
3 Trimming the wedges
Holding the chair steady by one leg, trim the wedges and tenons flush to the seat with a flush-cutting saw (above). Finally, sand the surface smooth.
Drying green wood tenons in hot sand
if you are making your chair from green wood you need to dry the leg, post, and stretcher tenons before final assembly.
The dry wood will then absorb moisture from the mortises and swell when the chair is assembled...
MARKING AND BORING POST AND LEG MORTISES
Laying out the seat and the mortise outlines
Lay the seat blank face-up on a work surface, mark the center of two adjacent sides and use a carpenter’s square to extend the lines to the opposite sides of the blank, bisecting the center of the seat blank. The resulting grid will help you draw a symmetrical outline for the seat. To mark the outline, either use an existing chair and copy it or create your own design using the dimensions in the chart on page 14 as a guideline. In each corner of the seat you will need to mark a mortise for a leg. The back of the seat will also require an extra mortise in each corner for the chair’s posts. Use a measuring tape to ensure that the mortises are perfectly symmetrical... >
The Windsor chair, with its independent back and leg assemblies anchored to a solid seat, and the post-and-rail chair—or simple stick chair— in which the back is an extension of the rear legs, have long been favorites with woodworkers. Windsors are noted for both comfort and elegance, but they arc a challenge to build.
Most spies call for steam-bending many of the parts, such as the continuous arms. The joints must also be cut to very close tolerances. Simple stick chairs, on the other hand, are easier to assemble; most designs feature simple round mortise-and-tenon joinery.
This chapter will show you how to build a hybrid of these two styles, a slab-and-stick chair like the one shown on page 50... >
GLUING UP THE FRONT AND BACK ASSEMBLIES
Spreading the glue
A frame chair is assembled in two steps: First, the back and front leg assemblies are glued up separately, as shown above and on page 48, then the leg assemblies are joined with the side seat rails (page 49). Start by test-fitting the chair components—the legs, the crest and back rails, the seat rails, and the slats. Use a chisel to pare away excess wood from any excessively tight joints. If you will be screwing the chair seat to
the seat rails, drill the holes through the rails (page 77). Once the rails are ready, cut a half-dozen wood clamping pads, prepare three bar clamps, then apply glue to the joints of the rear leg assembly... >
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CUTTING STANDARD BLIND TENONS
Sawing the tenon cheeks
You can cut standard blind tenons in the rails quickly and accurately on your table saw with a commercial tenoning jig. The model above slides in the miter slot. Outline the tenons on the ends of the rails, using your seat template (page 27) as a guide. Set the cutting height to the tenon length. Using a wood pad to protect the workpiece, clamp a rail to the jig end-up. Adjust the jig sideways to align one of the tenon marks with the blade. After making the first cut, turn the rail around to cut the other tenon cheek... >
Pear leg (page 23)
Cut from a single length of solid stock. Shaped to suit the shape of users back and balance the chair visually, top ends may be chamfered for decorative effect. Section of rear leg above seat sometimes referred to as a stile
Side seat rail (page 33)
Supports the seat. Angled inward at the back; joined to front and rear seat rails by angled tenons. Bottom edge may have a bead for decoration
Front seat rail (page 36)
Supports the seat. Joined to the front legs by blind mortise-and-tenons; bottom edge may have a bead for decoration
Shop-made templates for frame chairs are like wooden blueprints drawn to scale, providing the exact dimensions of all the frame pieces as well as the positions of their mortises and tenons... >
Apart from the common thread of providing seating and a set of legs to support the seat, chairs can be as different as the craftsmen who build them and the people for whom they are made. The history of chair design is one of individual innovation blended with the technology and tastes prevailing in the chair maker s lifetime.
The remaining pages of this chapter present a sampling of some of the more influential designs of the past 2500 years. Some of these styles are named after the furniture maker who developed them, like Thomas Chippendale or Sam Maloof. Others are associated with the monarch in power when the style flourished, such as Queen Anne... >