here are several ways to install a bottom on a frame-and-panel case. One method that is popular among cabinetmakers calls for grooves along the inside faces of the bottom rails and the stiles prior to gluing up the individual frame- and-panel assemblies. The grooves can be made with a dado head on the table saw, and they should fall about 1 inch from
the top edge of the bottom rails. They should be about Vi inch wide and half as deep as the thickness of the stock; stop the groove in the stiles at the point where the side rails butt up against them. To install the panel, narrow its edges slightly with a plane, allowing the piece to fit snugly in the grooves, but not completely restricting its movement.
Another type of installation, shown below, relies on ledger strips, which are ... >
ith a few variations, you can repeat the procedures shown on pages 57 and 58 to join individual frame-and – panel assemblies into a piece of furniture. A single frame and panel make up the back of a small cabinet. The front is put together in roughly the same way using mortise-and-tenon joints. On this side, however, there is no panel in the frame, but a median rail running between the
stiles. In this situation, the rads and stiles can be joined with standard mortise – and-tenons (page 104), rather than the haunched variety used for the other three sides.
The side assemblies are identical to the back, except for one feature: Instead of having stiles of their own, the sides fit into the stiles of the front and back assemblies. If you are using mortise-and- >
tenon joints, as in the piec...
Before gluing up the rails, stiles and panel, take the time to dry-fit the parts. If the pieces do not fit perfectly, make final adjustments, as necessary. A slight shaving with a wood chisel will usually do the trick.
Since the individual ffame-and-panel assembly is only one component of a piece of furniture, some further planning is required at this stage. You need to decide which methods you will use to install a bottom panel (page 60) and a top (page 64). Some of the methods of installing those components require you
ASSEMBLING THE FRAME-AND-PANEL
Test assembling the pieces
Join a rail and a stile, then seat the panel between them. Set the stile on a work surface, and add the second rail and stile (above)... >
Panels to fit inside your frames can be made of either plywood or edge – glued boards (page 20). To ensure that a panel will fit snugly in the grooves on the rails and stiles, but still have a little room to move as the wood expands and contracts, it is made substantially thinner on the edges than it is in the middle. The shape of such a so-called raised panel is achieved not by adding material at the center but by cutting away thickness at the edges.
There are several ways of making a raised panel, depending on the visual effect you wish to achieve. A common method, examined in this section of the book, involves beveling the edges of the panel with a table saw (page 54) or router (page 56). Raised panel cutters for the >
router are availabe in several designs, including cove and ogee, and...
This section of the book examines the framing techniques for building a typical frame-and-panel case. Remember, however, you need a careful design for the whole piece of furniture before you make the first cut on a project of your own.
Whether you will be using the standard mortise-and-tenon joint, the haunched version of that joint (right, top), or the cope-and-stick joint (right, bottom), calculate the number of rails and stiles you will be needing so you can cut them all to length and width at the same time. This permits you to use the same tool setup for all the cutting.
For the haunched mortise-and-tenon and the cope-and-stick, you must cut a
Haunched mortise-and-tenon joint
groove for the floating panel along the inside edges of the rails and stiles... >
Frame-and-panel joinery was invented about 500 years ago, probably by a frustrated medieval craftsman determined to find a better way to build cabinets than simply fixing boards together. A major drawback of wood as a building material is its tendency to warp and split. Frame-and-panel offers a solution to these problems.
Ever-changing moisture levels in the air cause wood to move, especially across the grain. As relative humidity rises, wood swells; as the moisture content falls, wood shrinks. The central heating found in most modern homes compounds the problem. In a heated home in winter, the relative humidity can drop as low as 10 percent; in summer it can soar to 85 percent... >
Adding shelves to a carcase is one way to turn a simple wood box into a useful piece of furniture. The simplest method for installing shelves is to bore two parallel rows of holes in the side panels of the carcase and insert commercially available plastic or metal shelf supports. The two alternatives shown in this chapter require a little more preparation, but they have a payoff in that there are no visible shelf supports to mar the appearance of the finished piece. Like commercial shelf hardware, hidden supports (below and page 42) are adjustable; the difference is that they rely on narrow wood strips recessed in rabbets cut into the underside of the shelves, and this makes them all but invisible.
For fixed shelves (page 43), you have to rout dadoes on carcase sides... >
dge banding is the usual way of concealing the visible edges of plywood panels and shelves; it creates the illusion that the carcase is made exclusively of solid wood. You can choose one of two options: Commercial edge banding, shown on page 40, is available in a wide variety of wood types, colors and thick
nesses. Installing it is simply a matter of cutting off the lengths you need from a roll, setting the banding in place and heating it with a household iron to melt the adhesive that bonds it to the surface of the wood.
Although somewhat more painstaking to apply, shop-made edge banding
offers several advantages over the store – bought solution. You can make it from any available wood species and cut it to whatever thickness you choose; Ve-inch-thick banding is typical... >
here are many ways of joining carcase panels together. The pages that follow will examine three of the most popular choices: dovetail, rabbet and plate joinery. As shown in the photo at right, the interlocking pins and tails of a through dovetail joint give both solidity and distinctive appearance. Cutting such a joint with the traditional hand tools is considered a rite of passage for aspiring woodworkers. It requires skill and practice to perfect. It also leaves room for creativity, since it allows you to choose the width of pins and tails to give your joints an
esthetically pleasing look. The same joint can be executed in far less time, but with equal precision, using a router and a jig; that approach is demonstrated in the Drawers chapter (page 80-81)... >