Category CABINETMAKING

INSTALLING A BOTTOM PANEL

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here are several ways to install a bot­tom on a frame-and-panel case. One method that is popular among cabinet­makers calls for grooves along the inside faces of the bottom rails and the stiles prior to gluing up the individual frame- and-panel assemblies. The grooves can be made with a dado head on the table saw, and they should fall about 1 inch from
the top edge of the bottom rails. They should be about Vi inch wide and half as deep as the thickness of the stock; stop the groove in the stiles at the point where the side rails butt up against them. To install the panel, narrow its edges slightly with a plane, allowing the piece to fit snugly in the grooves, but not completely restricting its movement.

Another type of installation, shown below, relies on ledger strips, which are ...

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ASSEMBLING A FRAME-AND-PANEL CASE

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ith a few variations, you can repeat the procedures shown on pages 57 and 58 to join individual frame-and – panel assemblies into a piece of furniture. A single frame and panel make up the back of a small cabinet. The front is put together in roughly the same way using mortise-and-tenon joints. On this side, however, there is no panel in the frame, but a median rail running between the
stiles. In this situation, the rads and stiles can be joined with standard mortise – and-tenons (page 104), rather than the haunched variety used for the other three sides.

The side assemblies are identical to the back, except for one feature: Instead of having stiles of their own, the sides fit into the stiles of the front and back assemblies. If you are using mortise-and-
tenon joints, as in the piec...

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PUTTING THE PANEL IN THE FRAME

Подпись: to bore pocket holes in the rails or rout grooves in the rails and stiles. In either case, the stock will have to be prepared prior to gluing up.Подпись:PUTTING THE PANEL IN THE FRAMEBefore gluing up the rails, stiles and panel, take the time to dry-fit the parts. If the pieces do not fit perfectly, make final adjustments, as necessary. A slight shaving with a wood chisel will usually do the trick.

Since the individual ffame-and-panel assembly is only one component of a piece of furniture, some further planning is required at this stage. You need to decide which methods you will use to install a bottom panel (page 60) and a top (page 64). Some of the methods of installing those components require you

PUTTING THE PANEL IN THE FRAME

ASSEMBLING THE FRAME-AND-PANEL

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Test assembling the pieces

Join a rail and a stile, then seat the panel between them. Set the stile on a work sur­face, and add the second rail and stile (above)...

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MAKING THE PANEL

Подпись: Although the design is different, beveling a panel’s edges with a router (top) or a table saw (below) achieves the same effect: The center of the panel appears raised, while its edges are sufficiently narrow to fit into a groove in the frame.MAKING THE PANEL

Panels to fit inside your frames can be made of either plywood or edge – glued boards (page 20). To ensure that a panel will fit snugly in the grooves on the rails and stiles, but still have a little room to move as the wood expands and con­tracts, it is made substantially thinner on the edges than it is in the middle. The shape of such a so-called raised panel is achieved not by adding material at the center but by cutting away thickness at the edges.

There are several ways of making a raised panel, depending on the visual effect you wish to achieve. A common method, examined in this section of the book, involves beveling the edges of the panel with a table saw (page 54) or router (page 56). Raised panel cutters for the
router are availabe in several designs, including cove and ogee, and...

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MAKING THE FRAME

MAKING THE FRAME

This section of the book examines the framing techniques for building a typical frame-and-panel case. Remem­ber, however, you need a careful design for the whole piece of furniture before you make the first cut on a project of your own.

Whether you will be using the stan­dard mortise-and-tenon joint, the haunched version of that joint (right, top), or the cope-and-stick joint (right, bottom), calculate the number of rails and stiles you will be needing so you can cut them all to length and width at the same time. This permits you to use the same tool setup for all the cutting.

For the haunched mortise-and-tenon and the cope-and-stick, you must cut a

Haunched mortise-and-tenon joint

MAKING THE FRAME

Cope-and-stick joint

groove for the floating panel along the inside edges of the rails and stiles...

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ANATOMY OF A FRAME-AND-PANEL ASSEMBLY

Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:ANATOMY OF A FRAME-AND-PANEL ASSEMBLYANATOMY OF A FRAME-AND-PANEL ASSEMBLYDespite their differences, the frame – and-panel assemblies that make up a typical cabinet have elements in com­mon: Namely, frames made from rails and stiles, and panels that fit into grooves in the frame. Bottoms and tops are usu­ally added, along with shelving in many cases. These components are typically made of edge-glued boards of the same stock used for the frame.

Individual cabinets will feature vari­ations. In some instances, the sides will share stiles with the front and back assemblies with rails fitting into both the edges and the faces of the stiles. To pro­vide access to the inside of the cabinet, the front frequently has a frame but no panel. Sometimes, a median rail is used to divide the opening into two discrete sections.

The two most common joints in ffarne – and-pane...

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FRAME-AND-PANEL CONSTRUCTION

Подпись: This clamping setup focuses pressure on the corner joints to lock together the components of a frame-and-panel assembly. While glue bonds the corners, no adhesive is applied in the grooves that hold the panel, allowing it to move as the wood expands and contracts.

Frame-and-panel joinery was invented about 500 years ago, probably by a frustrated medieval craftsman determined to find a bet­ter way to build cabinets than simply fixing boards together. A major drawback of wood as a building material is its tendency to warp and split. Frame-and-panel offers a solu­tion to these problems.

Ever-changing moisture levels in the air cause wood to move, espe­cially across the grain. As relative humidity rises, wood swells; as the moisture content falls, wood shrinks. The central heating found in most modern homes compounds the problem. In a heated home in winter, the relative humidity can drop as low as 10 percent; in summer it can soar to 85 percent...

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SHELVING

 

Подпись:Adding shelves to a carcase is one way to turn a simple wood box into a useful piece of furniture. The simplest method for installing shelves is to bore two parallel rows of holes in the side panels of the carcase and insert com­mercially available plastic or metal shelf supports. The two alternatives shown in this chapter require a little more prepa­ration, but they have a payoff in that there are no visible shelf supports to mar the appearance of the finished piece. Like commercial shelf hardware, hidden sup­ports (below and page 42) are adjustable; the difference is that they rely on nar­row wood strips recessed in rabbets cut into the underside of the shelves, and this makes them all but invisible.

For fixed shelves (page 43), you have to rout dadoes on carcase sides...

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EDGE BANDING

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dge banding is the usual way of con­cealing the visible edges of plywood panels and shelves; it creates the illusion that the carcase is made exclusively of solid wood. You can choose one of two options: Commercial edge banding, shown on page 40, is available in a wide variety of wood types, colors and thick­
nesses. Installing it is simply a matter of cutting off the lengths you need from a roll, setting the banding in place and heating it with a household iron to melt the adhesive that bonds it to the surface of the wood.

Although somewhat more painstak­ing to apply, shop-made edge banding

offers several advantages over the store – bought solution. You can make it from any available wood species and cut it to whatever thickness you choose; Ve-inch-thick banding is typical...

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CARCASE JOINERY

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here are many ways of joining car­case panels together. The pages that follow will examine three of the most popular choices: dovetail, rabbet and plate joinery. As shown in the photo at right, the interlocking pins and tails of a through dovetail joint give both solidity and distinctive appearance. Cutting such a joint with the tradition­al hand tools is considered a rite of passage for aspiring woodworkers. It requires skill and practice to perfect. It also leaves room for creativity, since it allows you to choose the width of pins and tails to give your joints an

CARCASE JOINERY

esthetically pleasing look. The same joint can be executed in far less time, but with equal precision, using a router and a jig; that approach is demonstrated in the Drawers chapter (page 80-81)...

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