SOLAS V/15 (hereafter used interchangeably with ‘the Regulation’) considers ship control as a sociotechnical system (see www. imo. org). The provision of information on the bridge and use of information by the bridge team and pilot are covered equally in the Regulation, which is concerned with resource management rather than just equipment design or training. There are a number of factors that need to be considered when making a decision so that the aims can be achieved. These factors are based on established human factors and safety findings. The factors to be taken into account when making a decision are:
• Manning operations and procedures
• Equipment and system design
• Bridge layout
In addition to the above, one should, for specialised ships built for specific purposes, consider any characteristics that may be relevant for the way the bridge is used. Although we mainly deal with equipment and system design and bridge layout here, it is important to consider the other aspects above to maintain a systems view. The Regulation requires that decisions be made with the intention of meeting the seven aims. These aims are mostly concerned with the performance of the work system, although there are aspects concerned with product characteristics. Table 9.1 (from the ATOMOS IV project) indicates this.
The development process characteristics column in Table 9.1 is empty, which means that SOLAS V/15 does not specifically have any requirements for the development process itself but rather for the results of such a process.
Source: ATOMOS IV Project.
The ATOMOS projects (I to IV) studied, among many other issues, the process of making a good design. One result was the design and redesign templates to be used when designing a new bridge or making changes to an existing bridge. The achievement of work system performance characteristics can be assessed only at a late stage of implementation. However, it is possible to provide guidance on product characteristics and process characteristics to support the process of moving from a decision to
make a change through to its implementation. These characteristics are the factors that will influence the achieved work system performance, and it is possible to set ergonomic criteria for these factors to reduce the risk of the implementation of the change. As shown in Table 9.2, most factors affect the achievement of most aims. The original table also contains guidance on the impact of ergonomic criteria on training, manning, and operations. Here, we show only the design-related criteria.