The following list of references is related to the chapters where they are most relevant. It will be noted that there is a substantial body of work on recreation planning, quite a lot on interpretation but much less on design. Access for people with disabilities is also well covered. Many of the design references are in the form of handbooks, manuals or design detail sheets produced by various agencies for their own purposes.


Driver, Brown and Petersen (eds) (1991) Benefits of Leisure, Venture Publishing, State College, Pennsylvania.

Edington, J. M. and Edington, M. A. (1986) Ecology, Recreation and Tourism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gray, D. and Pellegrino, D. (1973) Reflections on the Recreation and Park Movement: A Book of Readings, Brown, Dubuque, Iowa.

Hill, H. (1980) Freedom to Roam: the Struggle for Access to Britain’s Moors and Mountains, Moorland Publishing, Ashbourne.

Muir, J. (1901) Our National Parks, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

Parry Jones, W. (1990) Natural landscape: psychological well being and mental health. Landscape Research, 15 (2).

Rohde, C. L.E. and Kendle, A. D. (1994) Human Well-Being, Natural Landscape and Wildlife in Urban Areas: A Review, English Nature, Peterborough.

Thomas, K. (1984) Man and the Natural World, Penguin Books, London.

Wilson, A. (1992) The Culture of Nature, Blackwell, Oxford.

Chapter 1 Recreation planning

Bromley, P. (1994) Countryside Recreation: A Handbook for Managers, E & FN Spon, London.

Buechner, R. D. (ed.) (1971) National Park, Recreation and Open Space Standards, National Recreation and Park Association, Washington DC.

Check, N. H., Field, D. R. and Burdy, R. J. (1976) Leisure and Recreational Places, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Christiansen, M. I. (1977) Park Planning Handbook, John Wiley, Chichester.

Clark, R. N. and Stankey, G. H. (1979) The Recreation Opportunity Spectrum: A Framework for Planning Management, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon.

Clayden, P. and Trevelyan, J. (1983) Rights of Way: A Guide to Law and Practice , Ramblers Association, London.

Cole, D. N. (1994) The Wilderness Threats Matrix: A Framework for Assessing Impacts, USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Experiment Station,

Ogden, Utah.

Coppock, J. T. and Duffield, B. S. (1975)

Recreation in the Countryside,

Macmillan, London.

Countryside Commission (1995) Growing in Confidence: Understanding People’s Perception of Urban Fringe Woodlands, Countryside Commission, Cheltenham.

Curry, N. R. (1991) Countryside Recreation, E & FN Spon, London.

Curry, N. R. (1994) Countryside Recreation, Access and Land Use Planning, E & FN Spon, London.

Driver, B. L. (ed.) (1974) Elements of Outdoor Recreation Planning, University Of Michigan Press.

Fog, G. E. (1975) Park Planning

Guidelines, National Recreation and Park Association, Washington DC.

Forestry Commission (1993) Forest and Recreation Guidelines, HMSO, London.

Gilg, A. (1980) Countryside Planning, Geo Books, Norwich.

Glypsis, S. (1991) Countryside Recreation, Longman, London.

Knopf, R. C. (1983) Recreational needs and behaviour in natural settings, in Human Behaviour and Environment 6 (eds I. Altman and J. F.Wohlwill), Plenum Press, New York.

Lieber, S. R. and Fesenmaier, D. R. (eds) (1983) Recreation Planning and Management, E & FN Spon, London.

Litton, R. B. Jnr (1968) Forest Landscape Descriptions and Inventories, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, California.

Miles, C. W.N. and Seabrooke, W. (1993) Recreation Land Management, E & FN Spon, London.

National Academy of Sciences (1975) Assessing Demand for Outdoor Recreation, US Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Washington DC.

Patmore, A. (1993) Recreation and Resources, Blackwell, Oxford.

Scottish Natural Heritage (1994) Sustainable Development and the Natural Heritage: The SNH Approach, Scottish Natural Heritage, Battleby, Perth.

Stankey, G. H., Cole, D. N., Lucas, R. C., Petersen, M. E. and Frissell, S. S. (1985) The Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) System for Wilderness Planning, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-76, Intermountain Forest and Range

Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah.

Tait, J., Lane, A. and Carr, S. (1988) Enjoying the Countryside, CCP 235, Countryside Commission, Cheltenham.

Torkildsen, G. (1986) Leisure and Recreation Management, E & FN Spon, London.

USDA Forest Service (1982) ROS Users Guide, USDA Forest Service, Washington DC.

USDA Forest Service (1988) The National Forests: America’s Great Outdoors: National Recreation Strategy, USDA Forest Service, Washington DC.

USDA Forest Service (1990) ROS Primer and Field Guide, R6-REC-021-90, USDA Forest Service, Portland, Oregon.

US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (1977) Guidelines for Understanding and Determining Optimum Carrying Capacity, Urban Research and Development Corporation, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

Van Dorens, C. S., Lewis, J. E. and Priddle, G. (1979) Land and Leisure: Concepts and Methods in Outdoor Recreation, Maaroufa Press, Chicago.

Wurman, R. S. (1972) The Nature of Recreation, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Wyman, M. (1985) Nature Experience and Outdoor Recreation Planning, Leisure Studies 4.

Chapters 2-14: General

These are followed by more specific references to later chapters.

American Society of Landscape Architects Foundation (1975) Barrier Free Site Design, ASLAF, McLean, Virginia. Anstey, C., Thompson, S. and Nichols, K. (1982) Creative Forestry, New Zealand

Forest Service, Wellington.

Beazley, E. (1969) Designed for Recreation, Faber & Faber, London.

Bell, S. (1993) Elements of Visual Design in the Landscape, E & FN Spon, London.

British Trust for Conservation Volunteers (Various) Handbooks on Hedging, Footpaths, Walls, Fencing, BTCV, Wallingford.

Bunin, N., Jasperse, D. and Cooper, S.

(1980) Guide to Designing Accessible Outdoor Recreation Facilities, USDI Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Burnett, J. A. (ed.) (Undated) Park Practice Design, Park Practice Program, Division of Federal and State Liaison, National Park Service, Washington DC.

Campbell, A. (1987) The Designer’s Handbook, Orbis Books, London.

Countryside Commission (1980) Recreational Cycling, Advisory Series No. 8, Countryside Commission, Cheltenham.

Countryside Commission (1981) Informal Countryside Recreation for the Disabled, Advisory Series No. 14, Countryside Commission, Cheltenham.

Countryside Commission for Scotland

(1981) Information Sheets: Equipment and Materials (two vols), Countryside Commission for Scotland, Battleby, Perth.

Forestry Commission (1990) Recofax: Recreation Planning, Design and Management Information Sheets,

Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Goldsmith, S. (1976) Designing for the Disabled, RIBA, London.

Good, A. H. (1990) Park and Recreation Structures, Graybooks, Boulder, Colorado.

Hultsman, J., Cotterell, R. L. and Zulis – Hultsman, W. (1987) Planning Parks for People, Venture Publishing, State

College, Pennsylvania.

Kidd, B. J. and Clark, R. (1982) Outdoor Access for All: A Guide to Designing Accessible Outdoor Recreation Facilities, Department of Youth, Sport and Recreation, Melbourne.

Ministry of Energy and Natural Resouces, Alberta, Forest Service (1983) Recreation Design and Construction Standards and Guidelines Manual.

Pomeroy, J. (1964) Recreation for the Physically Handicapped, Macmillan, New York.

PLAE, Inc. (1993) Universal Access to Outdoor Recreation: A Design Guide, PLAE Inc., Berkeley, California.

Reis, M. I. (1991) Design Standards to Accommodate People with Disabilities in Park and Open Space Design, University of Wisconsin, Extension.

Rutledge, A. J. (1971) Anatomy of a Park, McGraw-Hill, New York.

USDA Forest Service (Undated) Recreation Facilities Design Catalogue, USDA Forest Service, Washington DC.

USDA Forest Service (1987) National Forest Landscape Management: Recreation, Volume 2, Chapter 8, USDA Forest Service, Washington DC.

US National Park Service (1935) Park Structures and Facilities, USDI, National Park Service, Washington DC.

Chapter 5 Parking the car

Brierly, J. (1972) Car Parking and the Environment, The Institution of Municipal Engineers, London.

British Parking Association (1977) Parking in Relation to Recreational Needs, British Parking Association, St Albans.

Countryside Commission (1981) Surfaces for Rural Car Parks, CCP 45, Countryside Commission, Cheltenham.

McCluskey, J. (1987) Parking: A Handbook of Environmental Design, E & FN Spon, London.

Volmer Associates (1965) Parking for Recreation, American Institute of Park Executives, Wheeling, West Virginia.

Chapter 6 Toilet facilities

Countryside Commission for Scotland (1985) Lavatories in the Countryside, Countryside Commission for Scotland, Battleby, Perth.

Forestry Commission (1991) Forest Toilet Design Manual, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Chapter 7 Picnicking

USD A Forest Service (1937) Camp Sites and Fireplaces, USDA Forest Service, Washington DC.

Chapter 8 Children’s play

Consumer Product Safety Commission (1991) Handbook for Public Playground Safety, CPSC, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

Countryside Commission for Scotland (1984) Providing for Children’s Play in the Countryside, Countryside Commission for Scotland, Battleby, Perth.

Moore, R. C., Goltsman, M. and Iacofino, D. S. (eds) (1992) Play for All Guidelines: Planning Design and Management of Outdoor Play Settings for All Children, 2nd edn, MIG Communications,

Berkeley, California.

Chapter 9 Trails

Countryside Commission for Scotland (1981) Footbridges in the Countryside, Countryside Commission for Scotland, Battleby, Perth.

USDA Forest Service (1990) Trails Management Handbook, FSH 2309.18, USDA Forest Service, Washington DC.

Chapter 10 Water-based

Nordhaus, R. S., Kantowitz, M. and Siembieda, W. J. (1984) Accessible Fishing: A Planning Handbook, New Mexico Natural Resources Department, Development Division, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Wilson, K. (1991) Handbook for the Design of Barrier Free Recreational Boating and Fishing Facilities, States Organization for Boating Access, Washington DC.

Chapter 11 Wildlife viewing

Natural Resources Canada (1994) Non

Consumptive Wildlife Recreationists: A New Constituency for Forest Managers, Forest Management Note 59, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa.

Chapter 12 Design for overnight

Countryside Commission (1975) Transit Sites for Mobile Campers, CCP 57, Countryside Commission, Cheltenham.

National Caravan Council (1970) A Manual of Caravan Park Development and Operation, National Caravan Council, London.

Wagner, J. A. (1966) Campgrounds for Many Tastes, USDA Forest Service Paper, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah.

Chapter 13 Interpretation

Aldridge, D. (1975) Principles of Countryside Interpretation and Interpretative Planning, Part 1 of A Guide to Countryside Interpretation, HMSO, Edinburgh.

Barrow, G. (1988) Visitor centres: an introduction, in Environmental Interpretation, Centre for Environmental Interpretation, Manchester.

Countryside Commission (1979) Interpretation Planning, Advisory Series No. 2, Countryside Commission, Cheltenham.

Gross, M., Regnier, K. and Zimmerman, R. C. (1992) The Interpreter’s Guidebook: Techniques for Programs and Presentations, College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

Ham, S. (1992) Environmental

Interpretation: A Practical Guide for People with Big Ideas and Small Budgets, North American Press.

Lewis, W. J. (1981) Interpreting for Park Visitors, Eastern Acorn Press.

Pennyfather, K. (1975) Guide to Countryside Interpretation, Part 2, HMSO, Edinburgh.

Piersenne, A. (1985) Planning, scripting and siting panels, in Environmental Interpretation, June 8-11, Centre for Environmental Interpretation,


Sharpe, G. W. (1976) Interpreting the Environment, John Wiley, New York.

Tilden, F. (1957) Interpreting Our Heritage, North Carolina Press.

Ververka, J. A. (1994) Interpretive Master Planning, Falcon Press.

Uzzell, D. (ed.) (1989) Heritage Interpretation, Volume 1, The Natural and Built Environment, Belhaven Press, London.


[1]M assumes one urinal and one pan when segregated toilets are provided, no urinals in unisex toilets.

fIncrease ratio to 1 M=3F, increasing total numbers at 1 M per 20 spaces greater than 120.

On the basis of the factors described above provision can be provided on the basis of the following, where M=male, F=female and D=disabled. (All assume an average length of stay and distance travelled to the site.)

Updated: October 13, 2015 — 12:10 am