Development

• Start with manufacturing. The more impact you can make in the production of products and services, the lower its impact on the environment may be. [94]

• Reduce the overall material content and increase the percentage of recycled material in products.

• Reduce product and service energy con­sumption (of all types).

• Reduce the energy consumption in the manufacturing, recycling, transporting, and disposal phases as well.

• Reduce product and service water con­sumption.

• Eliminate toxic materials from product and service production and use.

• If toxic materials are unavoidable, make these easy to remove and separate them for recycling.

• Design more durable solutions that stay ef­fective longer. [95]

• Eliminate unused or unnecessary product features.

• Design products to be quickly and easily disassembled.

• Consider transforming products into ser­vices by focusing on the value and benefits they provide to customers. Consider leasing and renting solutions in addition to those that rely on purchasing.

• Consider social issues as well as environ­mental ones. Who makes and services the solutions? Where? How? At what cost?

• Consider wider environmental issues, such as biodiversity, decentralization, competi­tion, cooperation, and so on.

• Create and support “take-back” programs, either through retailers, distributors, or di­rectly. [96]

• Consider distributed manufacturing, servic­ing, and repair to localize economies and reduce transportation costs.

• Create upgradable, serviceable, and repair­able solutions.