Label Types

Type I labels are product seals licensed by gov­ernments or third-party private entities based on a multitude of criteria or impact. For ex­ample, the U. S.-based Green Seal or Sweden’s Nordic Swan Type I seals can vary substan­tially in their criteria, which may or may not be known or understood by customers.

Type II labels are informative, self-declared seals about the environmental qualities of a product, such as “contains 75 percent recycled paper.”

Type III labels offer quantified product infor­mation based on a life cycle assessment. These labels are best for comparisons between prod­ucts or services. There are few examples of Type III labels in use. One in development is the Reveal label.

Type IV labels are single-issue seals licensed by companies or organizations. Examples in­clude the Leaping Bunny (signifying no ani­mal testing), the Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval, Underwriter’s Laboratories insignia, and the Forest Stewardship Council seal.

See examples of all of these types of labels in Figure 17.1

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Type I Labels

Type II Labels

“Dolphin Safe” “Organic”

Type III Labels

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Because socially – and ecologically-oriented labeling address many different types of issues, it’s difficult for customers to know which criteria in each are actually being measured.