Discussion

19.5.1 REDD+ Current Status in Indonesia

Indonesia is now in the second phase or readiness phase of REDD+. In this phase, Indonesia is preparing REDD+ methodologies and policies to facilitate REDD+ implementation. Romijn et al. (2012) stated that Indonesia, one country at the forefront of REDD+ framework concerns, positively has a high proportion of forest area with high soil carbon content, high national engagement in the UNFCCC REDD+ process, very good monitoring capacities in forest area change, good forest inventory capacity, and low remote sensing technical challenges. However, the completeness of greenhouse gas inventory and forest area that is affected by fire is still at a medium level. Furthermore, carbon pool reporting capacity is limited.

An effective REDD+ mechanism for Indonesia must address the decision­making processes and the categorization of conversion and production forest.

Table 19.4 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of opinion

Model

Sum of squares

df

Mean square

F

Significance

Between groups

7.560

4

1.890

2.626

0.034

Within groups

388.697

540

0.720

Total

396.257

544

Table 19.5

Multiple comparisons:

least square distances (LSD) of opinion

(I )1

(J )1

Mean difference (I—J)

Standard error

Significance

95 % confidence interval Lower bound Upper bound

1

2

-0.112

0.100

0.262

—0.31

0.08

3

0.223

0.108

0.039

0.01

0.44

4

—0.074

0.121

0.539

—0.31

0.16

5

0.180

0.121

0.137

—0.06

0.42

2

1

0.112

0.100

0.262

—0.08

0.31

3

0.336

0.124

0.007

0.09

0.58

4

0.038

0.135

0.778

—0.23

0.30

5

0.292

0.135

0.031

0.03

0.56

3

1

—0.223

0.108

0.039

—0.44

—0.0.1

2

—0.336

0.124

0.007

—0.58

—0.09

4

—0.298

0.141

0.036

—0.58

—0.02

5

—0.044

0.141

0.758

—0.32

0.23

4

1

0.074

0.121

0.539

—0.16

0.31

2

—0.038

0.135

0.778

—0.30

0.23

3

0.298

0.141

0.036

0.02

0.58

5

0.254

0.151

0.094

—0.04

0.55

5

1

—0.180

0.121

0.137

—0.42

0.06

2

—0.292

0.135

0.031

—0.56

—0.03

3

0.044

0.141

0.758

—0.23

0.32

4

—0.254

0.151

0.094

—0.55

0.04

Note: (1) the government; (2) the academics; (3) the local communities; (4) the local nongovernmental organization; and (5) the private sector

The deficiency of clarity in land allocation procedures, especially over conversion forest, may cause high transaction costs and consequently limited attractiveness for potential investors (Brockhaus et al. 2012). If REDD+ is to be successful in supporting the alignment of policies across state entities, it will require the devel­opment of coordination and conflict negotiation mechanisms under top-level polit­ical leadership (Larson and Petkova 2011).