Impact on Annual Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Usage

On the other hand, the average amount of LPG used per households each year was

2.2 before ecotourism activity and it has been determined that today the average amount of LPG used per household is 3.51 each year.

H0, the significance test of the difference between two matches (Table 15.11), was rejected to test whether there was a statistical difference between these values; it was determined with 95 % reliability that there was a difference between the amount of LPG used per households each year before and after ecotourism activ­ities (t calculation = —6,631, p < 0.05).

This result means that there is a statistically significant difference between two values. The question “Do you think that ecotourism has an impact on the type and amount of fuels?” was answered as “yes” by 31.1 %, “partially” by 26.2 %, and “no” by 42.6 %. According to these answers, it can be said that ecotourism activity had considerable impact on the change in the type and usage of fuels compared to the pre-ecotourism activity. To sum up, the usage of the amount of fuel changed compared to the period before ecotourism activity but it did not have any impact on the change of type of fuel.

Table 15.10 t test results conducted to determine the amount of wood consumed per household before ecotourism activity and

Dual differences

Average

SE

95 % matched two-example reliability interval

Degrees of t freedom (df

Significance

level

Average

SD

Lower Higher

Pre-ecotourism 0.41 Post-ecotourism

3.63

0.465

-0.52 1.34

0.882 60

0.381

Source: Aydin (2010)

Table 15.11 t test results conducted to determine the amount of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) used per households each year before ecotourism activity and amount of LPG used per households each year after ecotourism activity

Dual differences

Average

Average SD SE

95 % matched two-example reliability interval

Degrees of

freedom Significance t (df) level

Lower Higher

Pre – -1.492 1.757 0.225 ecotourism Post­ecotourism

-1.942 -1.042

-6.631 60 0

Source: Aydin (2010)

15.2 Conclusion

In the evaluation, when the number of households and household sizes are consid­ered, it is seen that although there is not a clear difference in statistical terms, as ecotourism activities begin to be satisfactory values began to change in a positive way. As a result, it can be said that as a function of the ecotourism activity conducted in the study area migration has ceased; even so that depending on the activities reverse migration has started.

In the test conducted, it has been determined that frequencies related to voca­tional fields are not distributed evenly among all groups. Thus, the uneven distri­bution of vocational groups appearing on the question form is a statistical indicator that the intensity among vocational groups is in farmer groups. Almost half the villagers interested in ecotourism are involved with farming, and their educational status is at elementary level.

There has been no change witnessed in problems before and after ecotourism activity. However, the amount of problems decreased after ecotourism activity, meaning that ecotourism activities had an impact on decreasing these problems as income increased as a result of ecotourism activities and thus interest arose for these activities, which in turn reduced the number of current problems.

Explicit difference has been found in statistical terms in “causes for migration from the country to the city” before and after ecotourism activity. However, these reasons are mostly the lack of transportation to the region and insufficient health and education opportunities. Explicit increase has been identified in statistical terms in the level of information about ecotourism activity before and after ecotourism activity. It can be understood that until today information has been provided on the projects and studies conducted on ecotourism. However, it is understood that information related to ecotourism was sufficient in the beginning, but later, parallel to the increase in awareness among people, sufficient information was not provided despite the increase in interest. As a result, as both Project managers and people within the scope of the activity witness a sufficient impact of ecotourism on generating additional income recourses, ecotourism activities are not at a sufficient level (as they do not have sufficient information despite the change in their opinions).

The purpose of villagers in participating in ecotourism activities has been determined that villagers who earn their living under rather disadvantaged condi­tions see the implementation of ecotourism activity as a way to avoid these harsh conditions. By participating in ecotourism activity, it can be claimed that villagers generate sufficient additional income and thus embrace new job opportunities.

It has been statistically determined that the most important negative effects of ecotourism activities on the environment are generally concentrated on waste materials and stream pollution. Although the study examines the economic dimen­sion of ecotourism, its environmental dimension is also important. Financial sup­port for the development of rest house management has proved to be insufficient. As sewage systems fit for rest house management have not been structured, pollution of streams and waste materials come to the fore as important problems. The statistical evaluation performed for the reasons of shortness of staying periods of ecotourists revealed that the most important reason is the lack of solidarity among segments. Therefore, villagers in the entire Camili basin must be unified under a single central unit, so that local people can use the right to self­determination and self-management and make contribution to the development of ecotourism. More support has to be provided for the promotion of the region so that ecotourists do not come via agencies. By this manner, new incentives can be developed, promotion of the culture can be allowed, and thus new job areas can be generated and diversity can be produced.

Statistical difference has been determined in the types of utilization of forests after ecotourism activities, which changed the types of utilization of forests. After ecotourism activities decrease has occurred in utilization in the form of winter fuelwood and an increase has been identified in utilization as raw material for carving activities.

Although no statistically significant difference has been witnessed in the amount of annual fuelwood used after ecotourism activities, a relative decrease has occurred in the amount of annual fuelwood utilization after activities. If the decrease in fuelwood utilization today is compared to the pre-ecotourism activity period, utilization of forests in the study area by villagers has considerably lessened.

Usage of LPG as wood raw material has increased after ecotourism activities as the need for fuel. In addition, according to the pre-ecotourism activity period, the increase in LPG usage amount is noted as the result of increase in revenue as ecotourism activities become more functional.

This conclusion means that people who had no idea about ecotourism before ecotourism activities (78 %) participated in the activities depending on the increase in their income and enjoyed more opportunities for obtaining higher income from these activities. It can be concluded that the awareness for environmental protection has been increased in ecotourism activities conducted in the study area.

References

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