The Functions of the SDBR and the Basic Management Plan for Each Zone

The UNESCO Shinan Dadohae Biosphere Reserve (SDBR) boasts an ecological landscape and biodiversity of an outstanding quality (Lee et al. 2010). The wise uses of the various elements that make up the natural environment have allowed this area to achieve a history of harmonious development. The fact that the protection and conservation of nature has been heavily geared toward the survival and development of man has created an atmosphere under which reckless development has been accompanied by damage and destruction to natural ecosystems. The destruction of natural ecosystems whose biodiversity cannot be guaranteed will be further accelerated by the presence of a circular feedback system. The destruc­tion of ecosystems will eventually determine the very survival of mankind. As such, the goals for the management of the SDBR should be prepared in accordance with the theme ‘conservation equals sustainable development.’

A biosphere reserve area can be regarded as a sphere in which we can actualize values and ideals related not only to global problems such as global warming, climate change, biodiversity, and food shortages, but also to national issues such as environmental conservation, balanced national development, and low carbon green growth (Table 9.2). To this end, this study established, in accordance with the ‘conservation of biodiversity and cultural diversity’ (see Maffi 2001), the develop­ment of various programs that make use of indigenous knowledge as the manage­ment goals of the SDBR, and, based on the three functions of biosphere reserve areas, established the following fundamental objectives.

Given the spatial attributes of the coastal sea, near sea, and distant sea, the management plan should be divided into short-, mid-, and long-term strategies (Table 9.3). Over the short term, there is a need to implement an SDBR manage­ment plan that divides the overall area into the coastal sea (Jeungdo), near sea (Bigeumdo), and distant sea (Hongdo in Heuksan-myeon). Over the mid – to long term, attention should be increased to encompass the coastal sea (Dochodo), distant sea (Daeheuksan in Heuksan-myeon) and distant sea (Heuksando and Hongdo), while simultaneously implementing discussions on the expansion of the biosphere reserve areas. Bigeum-myeon is regarded as playing a key role within the SDBR in terms of the ecological culture of islands in that it can connect the distant and coastal seas. Moreover, as the small – and medium-sized saltpan industry that includes fishing without gear has been concentrated here, this area is also well placed to play a leading role in fostering the participation of small-scale local merchants and businesses and activating the community. Furthermore, Bigeum – myeon, which belongs to the Dadohae Marine National Park, boasts strong biodi­versity and an excellent ecological landscape.

The presence of traditional villages on local islands makes it necessary to develop a program that revolves around the establishment of a UNESCO informa­tion center in Bigeum-myeon. Although Hongdo has long been perceived as a symbol of marine tourism in Korea, it also falls within the core zone where warm temperate evergreen forests can be found. Hongdo is the perfect place to monitor the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems and ecosystem services, both of which can be considered as the core plan for UNESCO biosphere reserve areas. Jeungdo’s unique characteristics were damaged when the Jeungdo Bridge connecting the island to the mainland was opened in March 2010. In addition, Jeungdo’s designation as a Slow City may cause confusion in terms of the plans for the management of the area as UNESCO biosphere reserve. To this end, it becomes necessary to entrench UNESCO social culture monitoring and ESD in conjunction with local residents in this area. After having determined whether the short-term plan can be successful, the opinions of people in areas surrounding Shinan Dadohae regarding the extension of the biosphere reserve area should be collected, with detailed discussions and collaboration with the UNESCO Korea MAB undertaken. Thereafter, discussions pertaining to the establishment of mid – and long-term plans that are based on the collected opinions should be commenced regarding the extension of the biosphere reserve area.

Table 9.2 Basic goals of Shinan Dadohae Biosphere Reserve (SDBR) management according to three functions of Biosphere Reserve of Madrid Action Plan

Three

Basic goals of SDBR management

functions of the SDBR

Ecosystem service

Sustainable systems

Activation of indigenous industry

Conservation

Landscape ecological

Specification of the func-

Primary industry

planning-vegetation,

tions of each zone-

(indigenous

geology, land use, eco-

division into core,

industries)

system mapping, con-

buffer, and transition

Examination of

servation and

zones and identifica-

resources (by year,

development planning

tion of the functions and roles of each zone

type, and region) Distribution of the main fish species, shellfish, algae, and aquaculture Traditional shellfish utilization methods Spatial distribution, production of saltpans

Eco-monitoring

Social culture monitoring

Monitoring of

economic situation (development of statistical data and monitoring by local residents)

Development

Measures to use the main

Categorization and land-

Support programs for

ecosystems within

use measures for each

indigenous industries

each zone

zone

run by local residents

Logistic

ESD-education of special-

Reorganization of man-

Standardization:

support

ists responsible for

agement and steering

BR standardization,

conducting special

committee, establish-

industrial

programs related to

ment of activation

standardization,

UNESCO, NGO education and activity – support programs, formation of a local specialists community

measures

Organization of manage­ment body, PR strategy and planning that includes the creation of signs identifying the area as a UNESCO – designated biosphere reserve, guidebooks and pamphlets; crea­tion of emblems; and measures for utilization

HACCP

International issues related to marine pollution and the establishment of international networks

Application for the extension of biosphere reserve area and registration as a World Mixed Cultural and Natural Heritage

Table 9.3 Basic management plan by zoning of SDBR

Three

The basic plan for the management of each zone of the SDBR

functions of the SDBR

Core zone

Buffer zone

Transition zone

Conservation

Basic research on the

Basic research on the

Basic research on the general

general biota and cul-

general biota and

biota and cultural

tural resources within

cultural resources

resources within the

the core zone

within the buffer zone

transition zone

Planning and implemen-

Social and cultural

Monitoring of economic sit-

tation of long-term- based eco-monitoring

monitoring

uation (development of statistical data and moni­toring by residents)

Establish guidelines regarding detailed limitations for development within each zone

Development

The division of land uses by zone and suggestion of land-use measures

Indigenous industries run by local residents Support programs

Logistic

Extension of the research

Establishment of a sup-

Exchanges between resi-

support

base for specialized

port system to acti-

dents through ESD

researchers

vate eco-cultural

Education of specialists,

Expansion of exchanges

tourism

NGO education, and

between local resi-

Support for ESD con-

activity support pro-

dents, NGOs, and

servation of biologi-

grams

specialized

cal and cultural

Implementation and expan-

researchers

diversity programs

sion of integrated support programs for local indig­enous industries