The UNESCO Shinan Dadohae Biosphere Reserve (SDBR) boasts an ecological landscape and biodiversity of an outstanding quality (Lee et al. 2010). The wise uses of the various elements that make up the natural environment have allowed this area to achieve a history of harmonious development. The fact that the protection and conservation of nature has been heavily geared toward the survival and development of man has created an atmosphere under which reckless development has been accompanied by damage and destruction to natural ecosystems. The destruction of natural ecosystems whose biodiversity cannot be guaranteed will be further accelerated by the presence of a circular feedback system. The destruction of ecosystems will eventually determine the very survival of mankind. As such, the goals for the management of the SDBR should be prepared in accordance with the theme ‘conservation equals sustainable development.’
A biosphere reserve area can be regarded as a sphere in which we can actualize values and ideals related not only to global problems such as global warming, climate change, biodiversity, and food shortages, but also to national issues such as environmental conservation, balanced national development, and low carbon green growth (Table 9.2). To this end, this study established, in accordance with the ‘conservation of biodiversity and cultural diversity’ (see Maffi 2001), the development of various programs that make use of indigenous knowledge as the management goals of the SDBR, and, based on the three functions of biosphere reserve areas, established the following fundamental objectives.
Given the spatial attributes of the coastal sea, near sea, and distant sea, the management plan should be divided into short-, mid-, and long-term strategies (Table 9.3). Over the short term, there is a need to implement an SDBR management plan that divides the overall area into the coastal sea (Jeungdo), near sea (Bigeumdo), and distant sea (Hongdo in Heuksan-myeon). Over the mid – to long term, attention should be increased to encompass the coastal sea (Dochodo), distant sea (Daeheuksan in Heuksan-myeon) and distant sea (Heuksando and Hongdo), while simultaneously implementing discussions on the expansion of the biosphere reserve areas. Bigeum-myeon is regarded as playing a key role within the SDBR in terms of the ecological culture of islands in that it can connect the distant and coastal seas. Moreover, as the small – and medium-sized saltpan industry that includes fishing without gear has been concentrated here, this area is also well placed to play a leading role in fostering the participation of small-scale local merchants and businesses and activating the community. Furthermore, Bigeum – myeon, which belongs to the Dadohae Marine National Park, boasts strong biodiversity and an excellent ecological landscape.
The presence of traditional villages on local islands makes it necessary to develop a program that revolves around the establishment of a UNESCO information center in Bigeum-myeon. Although Hongdo has long been perceived as a symbol of marine tourism in Korea, it also falls within the core zone where warm temperate evergreen forests can be found. Hongdo is the perfect place to monitor the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems and ecosystem services, both of which can be considered as the core plan for UNESCO biosphere reserve areas. Jeungdo’s unique characteristics were damaged when the Jeungdo Bridge connecting the island to the mainland was opened in March 2010. In addition, Jeungdo’s designation as a Slow City may cause confusion in terms of the plans for the management of the area as UNESCO biosphere reserve. To this end, it becomes necessary to entrench UNESCO social culture monitoring and ESD in conjunction with local residents in this area. After having determined whether the short-term plan can be successful, the opinions of people in areas surrounding Shinan Dadohae regarding the extension of the biosphere reserve area should be collected, with detailed discussions and collaboration with the UNESCO Korea MAB undertaken. Thereafter, discussions pertaining to the establishment of mid – and long-term plans that are based on the collected opinions should be commenced regarding the extension of the biosphere reserve area.
Table 9.2 Basic goals of Shinan Dadohae Biosphere Reserve (SDBR) management according to three functions of Biosphere Reserve of Madrid Action Plan
Table 9.3 Basic management plan by zoning of SDBR