EXOTIC WOODS OR BOIS DES il. ES’

Amaranih (purplcwood) comes from Brazil or Dutch Guiana; it was user! for veneering from the time of l. oms XIV and even sometimes in solid wood. Very fashionable at the beginning of the eighteenth century, it was fnxpicntly used as a plain veneer on commodes and bureaux plats. Later it was used to form a dark framework surround to bo» sating or tulipwood Its colour. reddish violet with pale veins, becomes dark – brown with age

BoLs do Cayenne is a bois sat me. pale and very goklen. used for instance in the 1730s by Cressent

Bois de citron or d’hispanillc. from San Domingo, is pale yellow in colour s]xittcd with darker yellow and very different from citronnicr. Bois jaunc is an imprecise eighteenth-century term probaNy denoting satinwood.

Bois saline, from (iuiana and San I Ximingo. Ls a hard wood close to ma­hogany in colour but of a shiny red colour There are two varieties: the satinl rouge’ (of a reddish brown) and tlx* ‘sating rubaix*’ (striped and more golden). Used in Paris from the time of Izxus XIV. it reached the height of fashion between 1730 anti 1750 with the furniture of (Iressent. B. V R В and Jacques Dubois

Burr amhoyna (loupe d’amboine) is a rare wood from the Moluccas. The figure is very irregular with small dark spots resembling mahogany This wood was used around 1785 by Wciswciler

Burr thuya (loupe de thuya), of homogeneous tint close to mahogany, resembles burr amboyna but is redder and more pitted. It was used around 1785 by Weiswciler and Saunier.

Galnmhour. also called calambac or bois d’aigle, of a decorative «lark brown, is recorded between 1680 and 1720.

( x’ditr (січіre), from the Іл-bunon or North America, with a light brown tone, was used during the reign of Louis XIV for the sides of drawers and even for com|)lctc pieces of furniture, Later, it was also used by J.-F. Ocbcn.

Citronnicr (or bois jaune, satinwood), from the Antilles, is an extremely hard wood of pale yellow, varying in appearance according to cut. It is rarely found in Parisian dxhtistcrie before the 1780s. At that time it was used for veneering overall or contrasted with «lark woods such as mahogany, ebony or amaranth in furniture by К V. L.C.. Levas – seur and Saunier

(‘.oral wood (bois tie corail), a heavy wooti of a strong red hue. comes from Africa or Western Asia; one of its varieties, Padoukwood. was uveti «luring the reign of laxiis XIV for making the drawers of certain sumptu­ous pieces of furniture such as the ‘commodes Mazarines’ (17) by Boulle. Ebony (ebene). from Africa. Madagascar and India, is a very «len. se wood. Mack with lighter grain. Used predominantly in the seventeenth century for plain veneering or combined with pewter anti bras*, or again used as a ground for floral marquetry, ebony went out of fashion during the r«*ign of Louis XV and only came back into fashion in the years around 1760-80 with the revival of the Lou» XIV style.

Kingwood (bo» ilc violcttc). called "bois violet’ in the eighteenth cen­tury. comes from Brazil The name refers to its colour: light brown – violet. tlx* grain is prominent in «lark zebra stripes. With age it takes on an amber tint «iarker and more batxlcd than tulipwood. A very hartl wood, it is used only for veneering. It was employed from the seven­teenth century; its popularity culminated during the Regi-nce and it con – Пінячі to lx – used throughout the eighteenth c«*ntury (in the inventory of Noel Girard in 1736 it was the cheapest exotic wood) Acconling to Pierre Verlet the term Ixiis violet’ was used in a loose sense during the reign of Louis XIV and could also rrfer to amaranth Mahogany (acajou), from Cuba, became widespread in Parisian
сЫ-nisterie from the 1760s with the commodes ‘.’i la grecque’ by J.-F. Ocben aixl the demand for furniture in this w«xxl increased during the reign of Іллі is XVI The first mahogany chairs were made by dxmistcs such as Gamier and Moreau in 1778. Occasionally furniture was made in solid mahogany but it was mostly applied as a v«*nccr. The following types of mahogany may be noted:

Figured mahogany (acajou ronceux) of wavy pattern, coming from the forks of branches at the top of the trunk, the most expensive part ‘Plum-pudding’ mahogany (acajou mouchete), market! with numerous knots forming «lark spots.

Acajou chenille with shaded paler lines

Flame mahogany (acajou ftатЫ). where tlx* grain appears in red bursts, giving the appearance of flames.

Palisander or ros«*wo<xl (palissandrc), called ‘palissante’ in the eight­eenth century, comes from India, Madagascar and Brazil Its colour varies from light brown to violet/brown with a black grain Very popular under Ілміі-s XIV anti the Regcncc. it was thereafter superseded by king – wood

Tulipwood (bois de rose), called Ixiis rose’ in the eighteenth century, comes from Brazil On being cut it gives off an odour reminiscent of roses. It is pinky-yellowish in colour with darker-pink grain; with age it takes on an amber tone. It began to be used by Parisian $>£nistes only in the years around 1745. From about 1750 tulipwood replaced bois sating as the ground for floral marquetry and its popularity culminated in the Transitional style in the years 1760-75.

INDIGENOUS TIMBERS

Beech (hetre). sometimes used in (bf*nistcric of lesser quality for panels or legs, was frequently used in eastern France for whole carcases of furni­ture.

Cherry (ccrisicr) was frequently used during the eighteenth century for games tables and utilitarian furniture; it was sometimes also used as a veneer on the inside of doors of certain pieces with amaranth fillets (by Gaudreaus. for example).

Oak (chenc). originally from the forests of the Vosges anti Limousin, was the stantlard wood usetl in the eighteenth century in the construc­tion of the carcases of furniture in Paris, sometimes combined with panels of walnut or «leal. After 1740 the drawers of furniture maile in Paris are in oak Ries«*ner and Wciswciler течі a lighter aixl finer variety of oak from Hungary.

Olivcwotxl (olivicr), of buff colour with strong brown grain, was use«l as a veneer on Parisian furniture between 1680 and 1720 (Golc used it artxind 1680. and Hecquet around 1720).

Pine or tk*al (bois ile pin) was frequently used for tlx* carcases of furni­ture in the seventeenth century ami in the eighteenth until about 1740; later it was less frequently used for furniture of (juality. While in colour, it oxidizes on the outer surfaces of the carcase, taking on a reddish tinge Poplar (peuplier). a commonplace white wo«xl used in ponds for the carcases of mediocre furniture during the eighteenth century (according to Roubo). but mostly from the beginning of the nineteenth century. Walnut (noycr) was fre«|uently used for furniture in solid wood, or applied in veneer on fine furniture in the seventeenth century (cabinets, tables, gulridons); during the eighteenth century it was used rather for utilitarian furniture (night-tables, toilet-tables, commodes and secre­taires made for rooms of lesser importance). Until about 1740 the drawers of furniture of «{uality were in walnut; after this date they are generally in oak. The best types of walnut came from the area around Grenoble.

1 Acajou mouchete (‘plum-pudding’ mahogany)

2 Acajou Tonccux (figured mahogany)

3 Amaranih (purpleuaod)

4 Bois de rose (tulipwood)

5 Bois de violette (kingwood)

6 Citronnicr (satinwood)

7 Corne teinUe Ыеи (Ыие-staincd horn)

8 Corne tcintce i4*rt (green-stained horn)

9 (ib±ne (ebony)

10 licaillc brune (brown tortoiseshell)

11 luaille rouge (red tortoiseshellI

12 If (yew)

13 Ivoire (ivory)

14 lx>upe d’amboine (burr amboyna)

15 Iwupe de thuya (burr thuya)