Within a mosque, the mihrab, minbar, and prayer rug are liturgical elements designed for worship. The minbar is a high pulpit, an elevated structure from which the khutba (an Islamic sermon) is
given during Friday communal prayers. It is located in front of the assembly. Metaphoric elements are typically incorporated in the minbar and include a gate, ascending steps up to heaven, portal, and open door.13 The minbar (Figure 2.60) is located near the mihrab (Figure 2.61), a niche indicating the direction of Mecca.
Individuals pray using a prayer rug (Figure 2.62). It provides a clean, flat surface on which to submit oneself to Allah while praying on one’s knees and hands.
During the call to prayer, prayer rugs are oriented toward the mihrab. Chairs are not used in a mosque.