It is more appropriate for non-evergreen plants to be transplanted before the leaves start to fall and change color, before the soil is frozen in early winter or before the growth starts in spring (Kim, 1988).
18.104.22.168 Transplantation time for evergreen plants
Coniferous trees are generally transplanted during early autumn or late spring. The proper time for the plantation of Latifolius – Broad leaved evergreen plants is generally spring and autumn (Kim, 1988).
1.1.4 Effects of seasons on transplantation
When the ground is not frozen, some species may transplanting any time during the year but woody plants are generally moved in the spring but also they may moved in the fall after leaf drop and before the ground freezes. Fall planting should take place soon after leaf drop... >
Different root characters occur according to soil structure. Root enlarges, spreads and grows with its small roots and enlarges and deepens in well aired and sandy soil. Shallow and distributed root bodies are formed in silty, clayey or drained sub soil. Roots of some plants’ same species have different characteristics in different soil structure. It is difficult to transplant plants in an areas furnished with solid construction material or densely vegetated with plants (Kim, 1988).
Appropriateness of soil aspects from which the plant is removed is as important as the plant species. Some soils can be as effective as the plant species in growing a root system which is compact and rich in terms of hairy root... >
Generally, small sized plant species can be transplanted much easier than bigger sized plant species. Besides this, plants that are not very old and whose height are 1-2 m. can generally be transplanted successfully as their root systems don’t grow very much. The taller the plant is, the more difficult it becomes to carry; and it has less chance to adapt to its new place. As plants that grow in nursery are taken care more than the other ones, their roots are more fibrous and together. They have more attractive upper parts when compared to the ones that aren’t grown like them. Big plants are transplanted when the soil changes, during road construction and extension and when they are too big for the place to live in... >
Applied methods have both advantages and disadvantages. The success and failure of the transplantation depends on: species of the chosen plant, present conditions, and cultivation aspects of the natural place of the plant besides the aspects of the place it will be transferred. Besides the care and attention during in all these processes, the transplantation process itself is a crucial factor in success (Zion, 1968).
1.1.1 Choosing plant
Almost all kinds of plants can be transplanted. But every plant species have a different sensitivity level. Transplantation of plant species changes according to the aspects of plants during the time period necessary for plants’ adaptation to the environment conditions. Transplantation of bushes is much easier than the tall trees... >
Transplantation of large plants, especially trees, has been carried out with different methods until today. These plants have been moved as bare roots, in balloons completely leaving the roots out, within tied sacks, by wrapping the plant on a wire cage, wrapping it with a tie beam or with ratchet devices. The attention and care that we show during transplanting plants ensures the healthy continuity of its life. Pruning roots during 3 years before the transplantation, digging a wide root circle, careful wrapping and binding, carrying the plant with big and detailed devices, giving attention to the preparation and maintenance of plantation area leads the plant’s adaptation to its new place and live healthy.
It is assessed that whether or not to be a successful transplant before transplantin... >
After the Industrial Revolution in Europe, while changes in economical and social structures affected physical appearance of cities, Ottoman society were different from the societies western regions in terms of development dynamics and city types. As Turkish society wasn’t directly in mechanization process, the need for public domain and green places couldn’t be realized for a time until the proclamation of republic when city plans started to be done in a more organized way (§ahin, 1989).
In order to discuss plant transplantation works in Turkey, we should first talk about the understanding of open land and green land and importance given to green lands. Turkish cities were built on the basis of three elements; streets, gardens and houses... >
1.1 Transplantation of larger plants in the world
It is a known fact that the Egyptians during the ancient times have carried trees with boats from distances as far as 1500 miles. They did it in order to cool down the dry climate of the Nile River Basin, and to create some shade. Plants in Egypt are being arranged in a formal way. Fruits, vegetables and medical plants are alongside other decorative plants within the gardens. The most commonly used plants are Phoenix, Palm Tree, Lotus and Papyrus.
Ancient Greeks in particular, have worked on issues regarding tree transplantation and tree protection. In relation to this, Theophrastis has carried out a research in 300 BC, on necessary methods to wholly protect the root system during plant transplantation (Nadel, 1977).
From the 15th Century, ... >
Omer Lutfu ^orbaci1 and Murat Ertekin2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture 2Bartin University, Faculty of Forestry
The visual value of a town increases directly proportional to the density of her open and green spaces. Vertically and horizontally formed greenery is an indispensable part of urban design. However, with the advanced technology during the 20 th century, wide construction areas, highways, agricultural and industrial zones have developed in an unplanned manner, and natural resources were abused in an unsystematic way. Unfortunately, the number of natural elements in towns has decreased rapidly in recent years, and with the help of uncoordinated urbanization, the situation has turned for the worse for green areas... >
Flow in pipes is defined as functions of dimension of pipes and velocity of flow. While determining dimension of pipe in irrigation system investment costs can be minimized through choosing the possible smallest dimension of pipe. However keep in mind that reducing dimension of pipe shall increase the velocity as seen in following formula. Increase of velocity means increase of loss of frictions occurring in pipes.
Q:system flow (m3/h)
A: line cross-section area: m2 V: velocity of flow. m/s
Possible minimum dimension of head should be chosen according to limitations of friction loss which are allowed. While choosing dimension of main pipe it is required not to exceed 15% of pressure of pumper... >
Unit which is constituted from heads making irrigation in irrigation area is called as operating unit. Maximum operating unit is calculated by means of following formula.
Minimum operating unit is also calculated by means of following formula.
q:sprinkler flow m3/h Q:system flow m3/h
Nmax: maximum number of station Tg: achievable irrigation duration per day, h/ day Ta: irrigation duration, h SA: irrigation interval, day.
Operation unit is considered a number between Nmin and Nmax in planning step.
5.3 Hydraulic calculation
Two different head loss are occurred in duration of water’s reaching from resource to plant in delivery of water in an irrigation system. One of them is friction head loss... >