This book is intended to contribute to the ongoing debate about the future shape of cities.
Supported by emerging international research, it presents a vision for integrating Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes (CPULs) into existing and future cities. CPULs are urban spaces combining agricultural and other landscape elements within a strategy of continuous, open space linkages.
The book focuses on design and planning questions raised by CPULs and examines the various qualities CPULs can bring to the urban fabric. Chapters by Katrin Bohn, Andre Viljoen and Joe Howe present the case for CPULs, exploring the situation today, the historical context and proposals for CPUL design strategies. A series of underpinning chapters, written by specialists, develop and expand upon these issues.
Urban agriculture within CPULs, integrated into individual cities, can contribute to more sustainable food production and open space management. If the design potential of CPULs is to be realised, it is necessary to understand the arguments supporting urban agriculture.
CPULs will form part of an urban infrastructure and as such, their adoption implies embarking on a long-term development strategy which is equally applicable to established and emerging cities. The book explores different ways of implementing CPULs, using both visionary proposals and practical experience to support the argument for their adoption.
Andre Viljoen, Katrin Bohn and Joe Howe
Three of us have worked on the main text for this book, and a number of individuals and institutions have supported us along the way. Particular thanks go to those who have contributed specialist chapters, always efficiently and on time. Their input has been critical in underpinning the concept of CPULs.
Katrin Bohn and Andre Viljoen would like to thank Guisi Alcamo and Martina Oppel, who assisted with initial research. Eva Benito, Katja Schafer, Lucy Taussig and Kabage Karanja who have helped to develop drawings and illustrations. We especially appreciate the insightful comments Kim Sorvig and Jac Smit made about earlier drafts. The Faculty of Arts and Architecture at the University of Brighton has supported this project from its inception with the Centre for Research and Development and the School of Architecture and Design funding research. In particular, we would like to thank Anne Boddington, Prof. Bruce Brown, Prof. Jonathan Woodham and Sean Tonkin. At the Architectural Press, Alison Yates, Liz Whiting and Catharine Steers for their help and patience. And p, Alma and Bertolt for, amongst many things, visiting the Peckham Farmers Market every Sunday.
Moreover, Andre would like to thank Jorge Pena Diaz, from the School of Architecture at City University Jose Antonio Echeverrfa (CUJAE) in Havana for facilitating the initial field trip to Cuba, and our ongoing work in Cuba and the UK. In Cienfuegos, Prof Padron Padron and Prof. Socorro Castro who made our visit so fruitful. Tom Phillips for joining in with the urban agriculture adventure and our ongoing research at the Peckham Experiment. Eddie Edmundson and Yania Lucas from the British Council in Havana for their ongoing assistance. In particular I would like to acknowledge support for my second field trip to Cuba with Tom Phillips, and for arranging Yuneikys Villalonga’s assistance in Havana. And a special word of thanks to all the urban farmers, administrators and planners in Cuba who answered our questions and let us photograph, draw and learn about their organoponicos, which have now been running successfully for over 10 years. Rene Van Veenhuizen, from RUAF (Resource for Urban Agriculture and Forestry) for assistance and support. Angela Blair from the Rowley, Regis and Tipton primary care trust for introducing us to the Sandwell food mapping project. Warren Carter from the Moulsecoomb Forest Garden and Wildlife Project in Brighton, for providing access to the project. The Royal Institute of British Architects, Modern Architecture and Town Planning Trust, for supporting the project initially with a research award. Robert Mull and Prof. Mike Wilson at London Metropolitan University’s School of and Architecture Spatial Design, and the Low Energy Architecture Research Unit, where the project originated.
Katrin would like to thank Hans Gebauer, Janet Rudge, Abby Taubin, Jens Weber and Harry and Inge Bohn for reading, discussing, photographing and encouraging our work. And the Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, Germany, where the project somehow originated as well.
Joe Howe wishes to acknowledge the support of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) for funding research undertaken during 2000-2001, which was concerned with urban agriculture and land-use regulation in metropolitan areas of the UK. This research has fed into the book.
CREDITS AND PERMISSIONS
All images, unless otherwise noted, are copyright Bohn & Viljoen Architects.
Fig. 1.1 Image created by Andre Viljoen, with extracts from the Geographers’ A-Z M25 main road London Map as an underlay with permission from Geographers A-Z Map Company Ltd.
Fig. 3.1 redrawn by Bohn & Viljoen Architects, from Fuel’s Paradise: Energy options for Britain by Peter Chapman (Penguin Books 1975) © Copyright Peter Chapman, permission from Penguin Books.
Fig. 3.2 assembled by Bohn & Viljoen Architects from Building a sustainable future: Homes for an autonomous Community, General Information Report 53, B. Vale and R. Vale ©Crown Copyright Reproduced with permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland. And from Energy Policy, Vol 27, Klaas Jan Kramer, Henri C. Moll, Sanderine Nonhebel, Harry C. Wilting, ‘Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch Food consumption’, Pages 203-216, 1999 with permission from Elsevier Science.
Fig. 3.3 assembled by Bohn & Viljoen Architects from, Bohn & Viljoen research. And from Energy Policy, Vol 27, Klaas Jan Kramer, Henri C. Moll, Sanderine Nonhebel, Harry C. Wilting, ‘Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch Food consumption’, Pages 203-216, 1999 with permission from Elsevier Science. And from DETR HMSO (2000) English House Condition Survey 1996. Table 8.7 pg 103, Production of CO2 by tenure, figures extracted for use in chart.© Crown Copyright Reproduced with permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
Fig. 3.4 This was originally published in ‘The fires of culture’ Steinhart, C. and Steinhart, J. 1974, Belmont California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Fig. 3.5 created by Bohn & Viljoen Architects based on material in Leach, G. (1976) Energy and food production, Institute for Environment and Development., IPC Science and Technology Press.
Fig. 3.6 created by Bohn & Viljoen Architects based on material in Leach, G. (1976) Energy and food production, Institute for Environment and Development., IPC Science and Technology Press.
Fig. 3.7 produced by Bohn & Viljoen Architects based on material in Lampkin, N. H. and Padel, S. (1994) The Economics of Organic Farming, CABI publishing, based on the original source, Murphy, M. C. (1992) organic farming as a Business in Great Britain. Agricultural Economics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
Fig. 3.8 based on material in Kol, R., Bieiot, W. and Wilting, H. C. (1993) Energie-intensiteiten van voedingsmiddelen, Energy and Environmental Sciences Department (IVEM) State University of Groningen, Netherlands.
Fig. 5.1 and 5.2 © Crown Copyright Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
Fig. 6.1 published with permission from Rowley Regis and Tipton primary care trust and maps. Reproduced by permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, © Crown Copyright 100040510.
Figs 9.1 and 9.2 by permission of Sustain.
Fig. 9.3 by permission of S. Gertstle.
Figs 13.1-13.7 are all Crown Copyright, Reproduced by permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, and produced with the permission of the trustees of the Imperial War Museum, London.
Fig. 17.2 drawn by Bohn & Viljoen Architects, based on site surveys and a report prepared by the University of Cienfuegos.
Fig. 17.3 drawn by Bohn & Viljoen Architects, based on site surveys and a report prepared by the University of Cienfuegos.
Figs 18.1-18.3 are all by permission of Dr. B. Mbiba.
Fig 19.5 by permission of Antonia Faust.
Figs 20.1-20.3, 20.5 and 20.6 by permission of A Perez-Vazques.
Figs 22.1-22.3 by permission of G. Burnett.
Fig. 22.4 by permission of G. Sherriff.
Fig. 22.5 by permission of G. Burnett.
Figs 22.6-22.8 by permission of G. Sherriff.
Fig. 23.1 by Jan Hiensch for the Urban Agriculture Magazine. Urban Agriculture 2001. Based on the original illustrations by D. Boyd, IIUE.
Fig. 23.2 by Jan Hiensch for the Urban Agriculture Magazine. Urban Agriculture 2001. Based on the original illustrations by I. Boyd and K. Weise, PAHAR.
Fig. 23.3 by Jan Hiensch for the Urban Agriculture Magazine. Urban Agriculture Magazine Number 4, July 2001. Based on the original illustrations by Prof. A C Mosha and B. Cavric.
Fig. 23.5 by Jan Hiensch for the Urban Agriculture Magazine. Urban Agriculture Magazine Number 4, July 2001. Based on the original illustrations by M. D. Kitilla, and A. Mlambo.
Fig. 23.6 by Jan Hiensch for the Urban Agriculture Magazine. Urban Agriculture Magazine Number 4, July 2001. Based on the original illustrations by P Mishev and A. Yoveva, SWF, Sofia, Bulgaria, Architect.
Fig. 24.1 created by Bohn & Viljoen Architects, using a photograph produced by Simmons Aero Films Limited, as an underlay.
Plate 1 by permission of Tom Phillips.
Plate 6 created by Bohn & Viljoen Architects, using an extract from the Phillips Maps, London and M25 navigator map as a underlay.
Plate 7 LeisurESCAPE London Southwark detail map, original image created by Bohn & Viljoen Architects, using an extract from the an ordnance survey map as underlay, reproduced by permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, ©Crown Copyright 100040510.
Plate 8 LeisurESCAPE London Southwark detail aerial view collage, original image created by Bohn & Viljoen Architects, using an extract from ‘London: the photographic atlas’ permission requested from Harper Collins Illustrated.