Paper and cardboard

The material. Papyrus, the forerunner of paper, was made from the flower stem of the reed, native to Egypt; it has been known and used for over 5000 years. Paper, by contrast, is a Chinese invention (105 AD). It is made from pulped cellulose fibers derived from wood, cotton, or flax. There are many types of paper and paperboard: tissue paper, newsprint, Kraft paper for packaging, office paper, fine glazed writing paper, cardboard—and a corre­spondingly wide range of properties. The following data spans the range of newsprint and Kraft paper.

Composition

Cellulose fibers, usually with filler and colorant. General properties

Density

480

– 860

kg/m3

Price

2.07

– 12.4

USD/kg

Mechanical properties

Young’s modulus

3

– 8.9

GPa

Yield strength (elastic limit)

15

– 34

MPa

Tensile strength

23

– 51

MPa

Compressive strength

41

– 55

MPa

Elongation

0.75

– 2

%

Hardness—Vickers

*4

– 9

HV

Fatigue strength at 107 cycles

*13

– 24

MPa

Fracture toughness

*6

– 10

MPa. m1/2

Thermal properties

Glass temperature

47

– 67

°C

Maximum service temperature

77

– 130

°C

Thermal conductor or insulator?

Good conductor

Thermal conductivity

0.06

– 0.17

W/m. K

Specific heat capacity

1340

– 1400

J/kg. K

Thermal expansion coefficient

5

– 20

p, strain/°C

Electrical properties

Electrical conductor or insulator?

Good insulator

Electrical resistivity

1 X 1013

– 1 X 1014

pnhm. cm

Dielectric constant

2.5

– 6

Dissipation factor

0.015

– 0.04

Dielectric strength

0.2

– 0.3 106

V/m

Cardboard, ready for recycling.

Ecoproperties: material

Annual world production Embodied energy, primary production CO2 footprint, primary production Water usage Eco-indicator

Ecoproperties: processing

Construction energy Construction CO2

Recycling

Embodied energy, recycling CO2 footprint, recycling Recycle fraction in current supply

Typical uses. Packaging, filtering, writing; printing; currency; electrical and thermal insulation; gaskets.