Category WINDSOR FURNITURE

MAKING THE TOP

MAKING THE TOPWi th the sides down, the top of the Pembroke table appears to be circular.

Once the leaves are raised, however, the top’s distinctive shape, with ellip­tical ends and sides, becomes appar­ent. Similar-shaped tabletops were used on Federal-period card tables. The leaves are hinged on a rule joint, which is shaped on the router table. Once the joint is completed and the hinges located, the curved profile of the leaves is cut on the band saw.

SHAPING THE TOP

MAKING THE TOP

Routing the edges of the tabletop

Clamp the tabletop to a work surface with the edge to be shaped extending off the surface. Install a piloted round-over bit and adjust the cutting depth to allow you to reach the final
depth in at least two passes...

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MAKING THE DRAWER

MAKING THE DRAWERПодпись:Build the drawer for your Pembroke table as you would for a Queen Anne secretary, (page 116) using through dovetails to join the pieces. Use if-inch plywood for the drawer bottom. The Pembroke table drawer also gets a false front which is curved to match the shape of the end rail and drawer rails.

To install the drawer, start by fas­tening runners to the side rails, as shown below. Slide the drawer into its opening and clamp on the false front, then trace the curve of the top drawer rail onto the top edge of the false front (page 42) and cut the profile of the front. You can apply wax to the run­ners to help the drawer ride smoothly as it is opened and closed.

REINFORCING THE FRAME

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MAKING THE DRAWER Installing the drawer runners

Size the drawer runners, cutting them a few inches longer than the d...

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PREPARING THE SIDE RAILS

MAKING THE SIDE RAILS

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Marking the knuckle joints

Подпись: Long outer aide rail pieПодпись: Shoulder lineButt the mating ends of the fly rail and the long outer side rail piece togeth­er, making sure the board edges are aligned. Use reference letters to label the pieces, then mark a shoulder line on each board about 1 inch from their mat­ing ends; use a try square to ensure the lines are perpendicular to the board edges, To complete the joint outline, use a tape measure to divide the boards into five equal segments across their width, creat­ing a grid of fingers and notches on the board ends. Mark the waste sections—or notches—with Xs (right) so the fly rail will have three notches and the mating piece two notches.

Knuckle

Joint

outline

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Sawing the fingers

To cut the fingers at the end of the fly rail on your band saw, sta...

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MAKING THE LEG-AND-RAIL ASSEMBLY

Подпись:Подпись: Taper outline MAKING THE LEG-AND-RAIL ASSEMBLYПодпись: 1 Making a taper jig Cut your leg blanks to size, referring to the anatomy illustration on page 24. Mark a line all around each blank 5 inches from the top end to define the square section to which the rails will be joined. Then outline a 34-inch square on the bottom end of the blank to define the taper. To make the cut on your table saw, use a shop- made jig. Cut the base from %-inch plywood, making it longer and wider than the blanks. Set a blank on the base, aligning corresponding taper lines at the top and bottom with the edge of the base. Clamp the blank in place and position the guide blocks against it. Screw the guide blocks to the base, then fasten two toggle clamps to the longer block. Press the toggle clamps down to secure the blank to the jig, tightening the nuts on the clamps with a wrench (above). Remove the bar clamps. The legs of a Pembroke table have a delicate look that belies their stur­diness. They are tapered, with a simple banded inlay around each leg about 3 inches from the bottom. The banding includes a %-inch-wide dark strip— in this case, walnut—which contrasts with the mahogany. A thin strip of maple frames the walnut. On some Pembroke tables, the inlay was used to mark the transition to a second, steeper taper at the bottom of the leg. Traditionally, legs with a double taper were tapered on the two inside faces above the banding and on all four sides below it. The ver­sion shown in this chapter features a sin­gle taper on each face.

Once the side rails are assembled, they are joined to the legs with mortise – and – tenons (page 33)...

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. ANATOMY OF A PEMBROKE TABLE

Drawer

. ANATOMY OF A PEMBROKE TABLEfront

and the fly rail is cut and assembled. Then, the short outer side rail piece is sawn to size and the stationary pieces are face-glued to the inner side rail. The assembly is then joined to the legs with blind mortise-and-tenons. Wooden cor­
ner blocks are screwed to adjoining rails at the back end of the table to keep the corners square.

The top is attached to the rails with wood buttons, which feature a lip that fits into a groove cut along the inside
edges of the rails; the buttons are screwed to the underside of the top. As shown on page 47, pocket holes can also be used.

The dovetailed drawer is supported by wooden runners screwed flush with the bottom edge of the side rails.

. ANATOMY OF A PEMBROKE TABLE. ANATOMY OF A PEMBROKE TABLE

CUTTING LIST

ITEM

QUANTITY

THICKNESS

WIDTH

LENGTH

Corner blocks

2

3"

3”

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PEMBROKE TABLE

Подпись: The legs of the Pembroke table feature strips of dark banding, framed by thin string inlay of a lighter wood.

The Pembroke table is thought to have originated in the mid – 18th Century, when Lady Pembroke commissioned the great Georgian cabinetmaker and master carver Thomas Chippendale to fashion a small casual table for her. The exam­ple featured in this chapter, howev­er, has more in common with the neoclassical designs of Sheraton and American Federal furniture, which flourished in the following centu­ry. Its graceful blend of straight lines and gentle curves contrasts sharply with the intricate and ornate roco­co designs of Chippendale.

The earliest versions of this piece were built at a time when space was at a premium in most homes and furniture had to occupy as little room as possible. The Pembroke table meets this challenge in a couple of inge­nious ways...

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CLASSIC AMERICAN FURNITURE STYLES

QUEEN ANNE

Подпись:
Подпись: ОCLASSIC AMERICAN FURNITURE STYLESSpanning most of the first half of the 18th Century, the Queen Anne style was both influential and original, characterized by refined, flowing lines without excessive dec­oration. In chair and table making, the style spawned an important innovation: the cabriole leg. Queen Anne designs migrated to America after becoming well established in England. The style eventually found a home in Philadelphia, the colonies’ most important cabinet­making center. Queen Anne furni­ture remained popular in America long after it was superceded in England by the early Georgian style.

CLASSIC AMERICAN FURNITURE STYLESCHIPPENDALE

Подпись: Featured a tilting top and tripod legsПодпись: carvingsПодпись: Geometric fretwork CLASSIC AMERICAN FURNITURE STYLESПодпись: CHINESE CHIPPENDALE CHAIR Featured a clean rectangular look with light geometric fretwork Подпись: ShellNamed after British master carver and furniture designer Thomas Chippendale, this style emerged in the second half of the 18th Century...

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QUEEN ANNE’S. LINE OF BEAUTY

I

n material objects such as furniture, I believe beauty is born from pleasing pro­portion and the harmonious relationship between curved and straight lines. Straight lines impart structure, mass, and solidity. Curved lines lend movement, elegance, and grace. To me, Queen Anne-style furniture presents the perfect union of straight and curved components. Simple lines, graceful curves, unpretentious decoration, and delicate proportion all contribute to some of the most beautiful expressions in American furniture.

Queen Anne is a name given to a style of furniture first produced in the American Colonies in the early to mid 18th Century. Assigning periods or historical epochs to furniture styles, however, is solely useful for discussions about their origins...

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APPEAL OF. FEDERAL STYLE

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s a graduate student at the Winterthur Museum Program in Early American Culture, I was privileged to work with the country’s premiere collection of American furniture, including the best examples of the styles most popular with cabinetmakers today—Queen Anne and Chippendale. Even in this setting, though,

I was always drawn to the neoclassical pieces of the later Federal and Empire eras. As curator of the Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore 17 years later, I am still studying and writing about those wonderful pieces that I found so appealing.

The Federal era in America began with independence from England. This political change also ushered in a new period in the arts. The Federal style represented an esthetic revolution over the popular Chippendale and Rococo styles...

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WINDSOR FURNITURE

A deceptively well-engineered furniture style whose parts are assembled mainly from wooden sticks, Windsor represents one of history’s most innovative and recognizable furniture designs. The Windsor family of furniture consists of stools, chairs, cradles, stands, and tables. Chairs are the largest category with eight different basic forms, such as comb-backs, step-downs, and the sack-back version, which is featured beginning on page 70. Chairs also spawned nine derivatives that include stools, rocking chairs, writing armchairs, and child-sized chairs.

The origin of Windsors is ancient history. Their antecedents can be attributed to the Egyptians, where tomb drawings of the 18th Dynasty depict workmen sitting on three-legged hand-hewn stools socketed to a plank seat...

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