LATHE BASICS

r’P he lathe shown below is a typical 1 freestanding model that will serve you well for most toy-making projects. Lathe size is measured in two ways: swing and capacity. Swing is twice the distance between the headstock spindle and the bed, which limits the diameter of blanks.

Capacity is the distance between the headstock and tailstock, which limits the length of blanks. The weight of a lathe is important, as greater weight provides more stability and dampens vibration. Another feature to consider is how easy it is to change speeds; larger workpieces
must be turned at lower speeds than smaller ones. Changing the speeds of some lathes involves switching a drive belt between two sets of stepped pulleys; other models have variable-speed pulley systems that allow the speed to be changed without switching oft the tool.

LATHE BASICS LATHE BASICS

ANATOMY OF A LATHE

Tool base

Подпись: On/off switch Подпись: bed Made of cast- iron or tubular steel tracks, or ways, typically spaced U inches apart; accurately machined so that tool base and tailstock slide smoothly Slidee along lathe bed x between headetock and tailetock to position tool rest with respect to the workpiece: locking lever secures base to bed

Variable speed control lever

Increases or decreases speed of spindle rotation without stopping the machine; pulled out and turned to change speed

BASIC TURNING TOOLS

Подпись:Roughing gouge

Cutting tool used to rough out cylinders from square stock; available in widths between 7 and V/ inches

LATHE BASICS

Подпись: Spindle gouge Used for cutting beads and coves and for general spindle work; available in widths between A and Zz inch image15Skew chisel

Angled cutting tool used for making beads, V-cuts, and shoulder cuts and for smoothing surfaces; available in widths between Z and XZ inches

TURNING A CYLINDER

 

Headstock drive center

 

Tailstock drive center

 

Locking

lever

 

Подпись: 1 Marking the centers of the blank To mount a blank between centers on the lathe, mark two lines across each end from corner to corner. The lines will intersect at the center. Next, use an awl to make indentations at both points (above). Handwheel

2

Mounting the blank on the lathe

Butt one end of the blank against the tailstock’s live center. Supporting the other end of the blank with one hand, slide the tailstock toward the headstock until the drive center in the headstock aligns with the indentation you made in step 1. Secure the tailstock in place with the locking lever and advance the the tailstock spindle and center by turning the handwheel until the blank is held firmly between the centers (above). Secure the tailstock spindle in place with the spindle lock.

image163 Turning a cylinder

Holding a roughing gouge with a overhand grip, brace the blade on the tool rest. Cut very lightly into the blank, making sure that the bevel is rubbing against the stock and moving the gouge smoothly along the tool rest. The gouge will begin rounding the corners of the workpiece. The smoothest cuts are made by moving the blade with the grain. Continue making successively deeper passes along the blank, raising the han­dle of the tool with each pass, until the edges are completely rounded and you have a cylinder (right). Adjust the posi­tion of the tool rest as you progress to keep it as close to the blank as possible.

MAKING COVES AND BEADS

Spindle

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Turning a cove

image17Подпись: Turning a bead A skew chisel enables you to turn beads with sharp detail. Outline the bead on the stock with a pencil, then make a V- cut at each line. For best results, use the long point of the chisel. Then, working on one side of the V-cuts, widen the cut, slowly lifting the handle so the bevel rubs and the long point of the chisel makes a rounded, rolling cut (above). Repeat for the other side of the bead, making sure your cuts are always made in a downhill direction. Once the shape of the bead is smooth, turn a round shoulder on each side of the bead. image18Outline the cove on the blank with a pencil. Then, hold a spindle gouge in an under­hand grip with the flute pointing sideways and slice into the wood just inside one of the marked lines with only the cutting edge of the tool. Slowly angle the tool handle back towards the line until the bevel rubs on the workpiece, and make a scooping cut down to the middle of the cove. As you make the cut. turn the handle to rotate the bevel against the workpiece. The gouge should be flat on its back when it reaches the center of the cove. Make the second cut from the opposite side of the cove. Work in a downhill direction, as shown by the arrows—from a high point to a low point on the blank; never cut uphill or against the grain, otherwise the tool will dig into the wood. Repeat the process from both sides of the cove, keeping the bevel rubbing on the stock at all times (above). Continue cutting back to the marked lines until the cove is complete.