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How well does the design work?

By following the route of a visitor, an assessment of how the site works from their point of view can be made. First, most people coming there will know about the site without much publicity, and they will probably have an idea of what to expect. Guidebooks, maps and leaflets tell them
about the rock and the view without the need to promote it fully. These are all available from a wide number of sources within the forest, or from tourist information centres, hotels and travel agents.

Подпись: The sketch design, showing the new layout, solution of problems and how the opportunities were taken up.

The approach to the site is through the landscape of the Forest of Dean, which contains villages, small industries and farmland as well as forest. The lanes are narrow and sunken, with occasional views out...


Future focus

This final section does not seek to lay down hard and fast rules for the social dimensions of planning or designing with ecological plantings, naturalistic or otherwise. This chapter has shown that the state of knowledge about public attitudes to ecological plantings in public urban settings is patchy and much more research is needed to fill in the gaps. More importantly, it shows that the perception goal posts are always moving, and that we must constantly re-evaluate public attitudes. Setting out rules would be repeating the mistakes of the past by suggesting that one solution fits all, once and for all. Instead, this section summarises the most important contemporary issues or problems, and suggests possible solutions in relation to naturalistic ecological planting. Kaplan et al...



The degree of success when planning human/machine systems, and in particular monitoring and control systems, is entirely dependent upon being able to predict the consequences of different design solutions. The ability to predict the consequences of a specific solution is dependent in turn upon the designers’ insight, knowledge, and experience of the various components that influence the final function. In a human/ machine system—that is, in every system where people work—it is essential to con­sider people as a significant cognitive, emotional, and feeling part of the system.

In certain cases, solutions can be found through common sense, but when plan­ning more complex human/machine systems, common sense alone is seldom ade­quate...


Non-naturalistic ecological herbaceous plantings

As previously indicated, changes in the context or the nature of the planting, particularly in plant density and spatial organisation, can determine whether an ecological herbaceous planting appears designed as opposed to natural. So, on the one hand, there is the Garden of Movement in Parc Andre Citroen in Paris, and, at the other extreme, are some of the designs of Piet Oudolf, such as his planting design for the ABN/AMRO Bank in Amsterdam.

If there is little research regarding public attitudes to wild-looking herbaceous ecological plantings in urban public settings, there is even less about its non-naturalistic equivalent. Consequently, in order to try to evaluate public opinion, we have to examine current fashions in planting design and the views expressed by commentators.

For the last...


Outer Gardens—The Traditional Form Presented to the Outside World

Son’gyojang in Kangnting City, Kangwon Province, is a typical example of the yangban homes built in the provinces toward the end of the Choson period (in this case, a. d. 1816). In floor plan composition, it contains all the ele­ments symbolic of the Korean upper classes at the time. Its outer garden, consisting of a lotus pond and a pavilion, lies outside the main gate on flat ground to the southwest of the outer wall of the residential compound, which is formed by the haengnagch’ae (Figures 115.1-115.3).

The lotus pond in Son’gyojang’s outer garden is square in shape and its walls are lined with quarried stone. The pavilion, called Hwallaejong, consists of an owiofheated wing and a wooden-floored wing, which cantilevers out over the pond...


(Extract from questionnaire research carried out by Landlife (1994))

A recent study examined public preference for flowering as opposed to green herbaceous vegetation (Dai 2000). The impact of vegetation height (low, medium and tall), colour (yellow or multi-coloured), and pattern of colour distribution (spots or patches) was examined. Again, respondents were asked to rate digital images depicting different combinations of the variables. The variations were inserted into an urban scene including people and a number of residential buildings. The respondents liked the colourful vegetation (both yellow and multi-coloured) distributed in patches as opposed to spots regardless of whether it was low, medium or tall. They disliked the exclusively green herbaceous vegetation, particularly when it was tall. In the study by Jorgensen et al...


Modeling a Tree

in the second modeling example, a small tree is to be created. The basis for this example is a tutorial by Andreas Kathky which can be found also on the Greenworks website. The tree consists of four tree components that are linked together, and therefore has three branching levels. Here the structured creation of the geometry is especially important, since the parameter settings on the different branching levels might interfere, and thus the situation can easily be­come too complex when parameters on different levels have to be changed simultaneously.

In the first step, a simple component is attached to the camera. It serves to scale and move the geometry that has to be rendered later on. In the default setting it will not generate its own geometry...


The Power of Shifts in the Global Economy

Ten years ago, the IDEA awards program coordinated by Business Week and IDSA went from being a U. S. product design competition to a global competition. The annual spring issue of Business Week that describes these award-winning products is one of the best annual showcases of business innovation. When the program committee con­sidered whether the competition should remain an exclusively U. S. competition, they found they had no choice but to make it interna­tional, because there were no longer any exclusively U. S. businesses.

Samsung develops products around the world and has developed products in the United States for a U. S. market. It is no longer clear what makes a U. S. product American and a Korean product Korean. The Honda you might drive is manufactured in Marysville, Ohio...


Choose Components Carefully

Along with increasing the durability of prod­ucts by choosing higher-quality materials, fas­teners, and manufacturing processes that last longer, developers can also identify and elimi­nate defects and weaknesses that would other­wise prevent a product from working for a long time. Extensive testing can identify some of these, but others can only be witnessed while in use by customers (who often store, use, and maintain products much differently than their manufacturers intended). Close relationships with customers can help track product defects and failures that might appear on other models. (Note that the airline industry does this me­ticulously.) Also, extended testing of products can generate important data on product dura-

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• Specify sustainably-grown materials when using paper, cloth, wood, or other organic materials.

• Choose materials based on recyclability, production waste, toxicity, weight, and re­usability over renewability.

• Source materials, where possible, with the highest recycled and post-consumer recy­cled content. [97]


• Calculate costs and impacts over the prod­uct or service’s entire life cycle in order to realize the greatest impacts and benefits.

• Make claims that are transparent and veri­fiable. If you aren’t going to “show your work” by making available calculations or details, don’t bother making the claim.

• Use independent certification or ratings services where you can afford to do so.

• Become knowledgeable of government and third-party standards ...