The knowledge level of the academics, the government, the local community, the local NGOs, and the private sector are 80 %, 79 %, 79 %, 77 %, and 69 %, respectively. According to the ANOVA, the significance was 0.012 with a 0.05 threshold of significance, which means there was no significance. Hence, the knowledge level between stakeholders was identical or similar.
Variables with a significance value less than 0.05 would have a significant influence on the knowledge level. From five independent variables, namely, stakeholder, education, age, gender, and participation, only the participation variable had a value less than the minimum 0.05, that is 0.002... >
This section discusses the status of the REDD+ working group in Central Sulawesi Province, and also their knowledge level and opinions on REDD+.
18.104.22.168 REDD+ Working Group of Central Sulawesi Province
The REDD+ working group is responsible for developing REDD+ infrastructure and social, economic, and environmental safeguard mechanisms to enable Central Sulawesi to be ‘ready’ for REDD+ implementation. By the end of 2011, sub-working group 1 had formulated the draft of REDD+ local strategy. It is a guideline for REDD+ implementation at the provincial level. Sub-working group 2 is developing the institutional planning and methodology to undertake REL/RL and MRV mechanisms at the provincial level. Sub-working group 3 has developed the criteria and indicators for demonstration activities... >
Focusing on the REDD+ financing mechanism, there are three main funds, namely, bilateral funds (Norway, Japan, Germany, Australia, Korea, United Kingdom, etc.), multi-donor trust funds (the World Bank and United Nations bodies), and national trust funds [Indonesia REDD+ Partnership Fund (IRPF) and Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund (ICCTF)]. These funds are managed by government institutions, namely, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Forestry, the State Ministry of National Development Planning, and the National REDD+ Task Force.
As a follow-up on the Letter of Intent (LOI) between Indonesia and Norway, the government has established the IRPF system to facilitate REDD+ implementation programs in Indonesia through financing services and fund distribution... >
Although the design of frameworks, mechanisms, and arrangements to implement REDD programs have received significant attention, it is not yet clear how REDD+ will function on the ground or how the participation of local populations will be assured (Cronkleton et al. 2011). Indonesia’s REDD+ strategy consists of five elements, being the following:
a. Reference emission level (REL) or reference level (RL)
The international perspective of REL/RL is the amount of gross emissions from a geographic area estimated within a reference time period: reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REL) and conservation, sustainable forest management, and enhancing forest carbon stock (RL)... >
Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica called for the inclusion of reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries (RED) at UNFCCC COP 11, 2005, in
Montreal, Canada. Afterward, the Indonesia Forest Climate Alliance (IFCA) carried out brief studies on Indonesia’s preparedness to implement REDD methodologically and institutionally. At UNFCCC COP13, 2007, in Bali, Indonesia, the additional “D,” which stands for forest degradation was added; consequently, it was renamed REDD.
In 2008, IFCA published a Consolidation Report on REDD in Indonesia, following the Ministry of Forestry, who developed a REDD+ strategy and readiness strategy from 2009 to 2012... >
19.5.1 REDD+ Current Status in Indonesia
Indonesia is now in the second phase or readiness phase of REDD+. In this phase, Indonesia is preparing REDD+ methodologies and policies to facilitate REDD+ implementation. Romijn et al. (2012) stated that Indonesia, one country at the forefront of REDD+ framework concerns, positively has a high proportion of forest area with high soil carbon content, high national engagement in the UNFCCC REDD+ process, very good monitoring capacities in forest area change, good forest inventory capacity, and low remote sensing technical challenges. However, the completeness of greenhouse gas inventory and forest area that is affected by fire is still at a medium level. Furthermore, carbon pool reporting capacity is limited.
An effective REDD+ mechanism for Indones... >
According to Central Sulawesi Province (2011), on February 18, 2011, there were 77 REDD+ working group members in total, 4 members of the advisory board, 8 coordinators, and 65 members of the working group. However, just over 50 % of members were actively involved in the UN-REDD Programme Indonesia. Each sub-working group was represented by multi-stakeholders, composed of government, academic, local NGOs, local community, and private sectors. This composition enabled the working group members to share their knowledge and concerns from different perspectives. The sub-working groups were in authority of the following tasks:
a. Sub-working group I is responsible for formulating the local strategy to support REDD+ implementation.
At this time, REDD+ projects are funded by international and national funds. The Government of Indonesia obtained international funds through bilateral cooperation (Australia, Germany, Japan, Norway, etc.) and multi-donors [the World Bank, the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and The Nature Conservancy (TNC)]. The overview of climate change funds in term of REDD+ is shown in Fig. 19.3.
19.4.1 Provincial Perspectives on REDD+
The provincial level perspective on REDD+ was acquired through assessment of the questionnaire and in-depth interview results... >
The current status of REDD+ in Indonesia was obtained from reviewing secondary data. This section recorded the REDD+ development during the past 7 years and its strategy in Indonesia.
The emergence of REDD+ and the establishment of institutions, regulations, and information related to REDD+ from 2005 to 2012 are presented in Fig. 19.1.
UNFCCC COP 11 in Montreal. Canada (November – December): Introducing RED by PNG and Costa Rica
IFCA’s brief studies on REDD implementation
UNFCCC COP 13 ш Bali. Indonesia (December): Introducmg REDD
• Consolidation Report on REDD in Indonesia by IFCA
• National Council of Climate Change formed by President Regulation No.46/2008
• The Minister of Forestry Regulation No. P... >
The data and information were collected from October 2010 to July 2012. Through desk review, the institution, regulation/policy, strategy, and capacity building related to REDD+ were identified and analyzed. Comprehending the REDD+ current status and the challenge of a REDD+ financial mechanism were obtained from reviewing secondary data. The provincial level perspectives on REDD+ were acquired through assessment of the questionnaire and in-depth interview results.
The first survey in March 2011 was accomplished over 3 weeks... >