The EUNIS habitat classification is a common reporting language on habitat types at European level, sponsored by the EEA. It originated from a combination of several habitat classifications – marine, terrestrial and freshwater. The terrestrial and freshwater classification builds upon previous initiatives, notably the CORINE biotopes classification (Devillers & Devillers-Terschuren 1991), the Palaearctic habitats classification (Devillers & Devillers-Terschuren 1996), of the EU Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC, the CORINE Land
Cover nomenclature (Bossard et al. 2000), and the Nordic habitat classification (Nordic Council of Ministers 1994). The marine part of the classification was originally based on the BioMar classification (Connor et al 1997), covering the North-East Atlantic... >
The European council found EEA (European environmental agency) in 1990 to search and discuss the environmental issues all around the Europe. LUC of Europe is one of the most important data to define environmental strategies. CORINE system aims at collecting comparable and consistent land cover data across Europe. This information system, offers the essential elements for the applications of nature conservation, urban planning and resource management. The European nomenclature distinguishes 44 different types of land cover. Individual countries can supplement these categories with a more detailed level if they desire so. CORINE Land Cover is bridging the gap between the local (micro) and the EU (macro) scales... >
Standardization is one of the most discussed issues in LUC classification studies, and scientist and map developers were aware that using a common classification schemes might be more comparable and available. The first standardization works started in USA. Today there are several LUC schemes on the world according to region and scale. This chapter will discuss three largely used schemes; i) USGS (US geological survey) Anderson, ii) CORINE (Coordination of information on the environment) and iii) EUNIS (European Nature Information System) habitat schemes.
2.1 USGS Anderson classification schemes
This classification scheme was utilized within large number of models in the context of land physical dynamics and natural risk assessment... >
Onur §atir and Suha Berberoglu
Cukurova University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Landscape Architecture,
The observed biophysical cover of the earth’s surface, termed land-cover is composed of patterns that occur due to a variety of natural and human-derived processes. On the other hand Land-use is human activity on the land, influenced by economic, cultural, political, historical, and land-tenure factors. Remotely-sensed data (i. e., satellite or aerial imagery) can often be used to define land-use through observations of the land-cover (Brown, et al., 2000; Karl & Maurer, 2010). Up-to-date land-use information is of critical importance to planners, scientists, resource managers, and decision makers.
Optical remote sensing (RS) plays a vital role about defini... >
The Igneada Longos Forests National Park, located on the Black Sea coast 15 km from the Turkish-Bulgarian border, is positioned between the northern latitudes 41′ 44′ 43′ and 41′ 58′ 27′ and the eastern longitudes 27′ 44′ 52′ and 28′ 3′ 17′.The Igneada area includes different kinds of ecosystems (sand dunes, wetlands, longos (flooded alluvial) forests, deciduous forests, and many streams) and a wide range of biodiversity; these characteristics make it one of the most important areas in Turkey (Ozyavuz, et al., 2006) (Table. Igneada and the surrounding environment have unique characteristics; these types (Igneada Longos Forests) of wild forest in other parts of Turkey and in Europe have been damaged due to anthropogenic effects (Figure 4).
Fig. 4. General view of this area.
In terms of biodiversity, Turkey is one of the richest countries in Europe and the Middle East, and ranks the ninth on the European Continent in this respect. There are a number of different ecological regions each with its own endemic species and natural ecosystems. The richness of biodiversity in Turkey is expressed in its 120 mammals, more than 400 bird species, 130 reptiles, and nearly 500 fish species. The diversity of the geographic formations of Turkey and its location at the intersection of two important Vavilovian gene centers (the Mediterranean and the Near Eastern) are the reasons for high endemism and genetic diversity (Ministry of Environment, 2002).
There have been various types of habitats formed in the earth since the beginning of the world and existence of the living being... >
Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture
Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation. They are the cornerstones of virtually all national and international conservation strategies, set aside to maintain functioning natural ecosystems, to act as refuges for species and to maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes. Protected areas act as benchmarks against which we understand human interactions with the natural world. Today they are often the only hope we have of stopping many threatened or endemic species from becoming extinct (Dudley, 2008).
The original intent of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories system was to create a comm... >
The purpose of this book is to reveal of the landscape planning and design in recent years. For this purpose, chapters were selected on the topics of different landscape architecture study. Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor and public spaces to achieve environmental, socio-behavioral, and/or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and geological conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome... >