Category CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND ERGONOMICS

MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION

Pulp and paper production processes are complex and cover most of the unit opera­tions known in chemical engineering. Due to the large amount of water and the low efficiency of most of the separation steps, many recycling streams are required in the process. This is true for water, fibres and fillers, air, and energy. Due to this, the effort to produce a simple steady-state balance can be very high. Over the past two decades, heat balances have been handled with varying success, as have contami­nant balances such as, for example, chemical oxygen demand (COD) or macro-stick – ies. More difficult problems—for example, the simulation of the effects of various contaminants, such as the deposition of pitch and stickies—have not yet been han­dled successfully within the industry...

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Current State and Future Perspectives

Angeles Blanco, Erik Dahlquist, Johannes Kappen, Jussi Manninen, Carlos Negro, and Risto Ritala

CONTENTS

12.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 311

12.2 Modelling and Simulation of Pulp and Paper Production……………………….. 312

12.2.1 Availability of Data as an Important Success Factor……………… 313

12.2.2 Methods for the Analysis of Data……………………………………………. 313

12.2.3 Modelling and Simulation Software………………………………………… 314

12.2.4 Off-Line Use of Simulation and Simulation-Based Optimisation..315

12.2.5 Online Use of Simulation and Simulation-Based Optimisation.. 317

12.3 Human Software and Machine Interaction Needs…………………………………. 321

12.4 Research Needs……………………………………………………………………………………….. 322

12.5 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 323

References and Further Reading…………………………...

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Underlying Rationales fOR Learning at Work

A key mission of learning at work is to expose control centre operators to an open, fun, and stimulating environment of learning and creativity. While this is intended to be an enjoyable environment, it is also very demanding on both the individuals and the group. The content and structure of any work initiative relating to learning at work is to ensure that operators will be inspired, encouraged, and feel empowered to explore the passion of discovering their own potentials. The learning environment will be a reflection of an environment to excel in creativity and innovation.

The main means of a learning environment is through action learning in project teams. The operators will need to be exposed to different methods and techniques to stimulate creativity and innovation...

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Some Scandinavian Leaders in Creativity and Innovation

A large number of Scandinavian MNCs founded their business operations and prod­ucts on the basis of some unique innovations. Founded in 1876, Ericsson has become a world leader in communications technology with a business philosophy that com­munication is a basic human need. With a history of over 130 years of technological innovation, Ericsson has over 20,000 world patents and files over 500 patents per year (see http://www. ericsson. com). In the field of innovative service management and business innovations, Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) is well renowned. From its first transatlantic flight in August 1946, the airline introduced innovations, including the introduction of tourist class and transpolar routings (see http://www.

TABLE 11.1

Top 12 Country Rankings for Knowledge, C...

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LEARNING FROM THE SCANDINAVIAN EXPERIENCE

In international ratings, Sweden is one of the top countries in the world in the area of creativity, innovation, and knowledge. A report by the World Bank ranked four Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Denmark, and Finland) in the top for knowledge creation (World Bank, 2008). In this same report, Norway and Iceland, other Scan­dinavian countries, ranked fifth and twelfth. Table 11.1 shows the ranking of the top 12 countries in terms of knowledge creation and innovation.

Richard Florida and Irene Tinagli ranked three Scandinavian countries (Swe­den, Denmark, and Finland) in the top five places for Euro-Creativity (Florida and Tinagli, 2004). The Euro-Creativity Index is based on three indicators: Technology, Talent, and Tolerance...

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, SIMULATION, AND CREATIVITY

Control centres themselves will have built-in advanced artificial intelligence (AI) that will support sustainable entrepreneurship. This will demand a completely new understanding of control room work and its need to be transformed from an envi­ronment for supervisory tasks to one where creativity and learning take place in an open environment.

Our working definition of AI is: the ability of machines and other devices to perform activities normally associated with humans, including the ability to modify behaviours on the basis of learning from errors and experience. In the long term, AI could support the operators to build up a database and related systems for process optimisation. It can also provide decision aids for error handling...

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THE CHAIN OF CAUSALITY FOR LEARNING AND CREATIVITY

We now discuss the chain of causality that leads from a high ceiling and tolerance for error to learning and creativity. Figure 11.4 shows the chain of causality.

The chain of causality begins with an organisational environment of high ceil­ings in which trial and error, experimentation, and the making of mistakes and errors are not only tolerated but are an accepted way in which employees conduct themselves. In such an environment employees are afforded freedoms to make improvements to the ways in which they work. Trial and error and experimentation are two of the ways in which employees discover improvements to their job tasks. Toleration of errors and mistakes are the ways in which the organisation encourages further experimentation...

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THE ENVIRONMENT OF MODERN CONTROL CENTRES FOR CREATIVITY AND LEARNING

The environment of modern control centres is well-suited for creativity and learning. For most of the time, the available computer power has an enormous surplus capac­ity available for other types of application. By default, computer capacity contains surplus dimensions to cover peak loads, for example, system breakdowns or major errors. Apart from being held ‘in reserve’ to cover such occurrences, this overcapac­ity can be used for simulations of different types of process applications or pos­sible scenarios of breakdown and errors. For example, simulations could be used for operator training in which the operators practice for future possible scenarios. Simu­lations could relate to updates of new equipment and systems, including computer systems for process control...

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SOME THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF LEARNING AND CREATIVITY AT WORK

We regard action learning as an opportunity to stimulate reflective learning from critical inquiry into the organisation. Four components—conceptualisation, experi­mentation, experience, and reflection—accord with standard models of learning (for example, Schon, 1982; Kolb, 1984; Raelin, 1997). One such model (Raelin, 1997) is shown in Figure 11.2.

Conceptualization

t

Experimentation

I

1

Reflection <

і

— Experience

KNOWLEDGE

Explicit Tacit

Theory

Practice

FIGURE 11.2 A model of the learning process. (Raelin, 1997, p. 565. With permission.)

The Raelin (1997) model shows two axes: knowledge and learning. Knowledge is explicit or tacit. Tacit knowledge is the knowledge (know-how, but not know-why) possessed by an individual...

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The Concept of Control Centres

Control centres are ideal places in which to encourage individuals and work teams to develop their own work space. Control rooms usually comprise a tight community of like-minded individuals who usually have similar work backgrounds and experi­ence. This work environment is most likely separate from other work areas and usu­ally allowed to be self-managing. The configuration of the work teams themselves is very important. This makes it possible (even desirable) for the teams to create the knowledge that the team itself needs to function optimally in the work...

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