LEARNING FROM THE SCANDINAVIAN EXPERIENCE

In international ratings, Sweden is one of the top countries in the world in the area of creativity, innovation, and knowledge. A report by the World Bank ranked four Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Denmark, and Finland) in the top for knowledge creation (World Bank, 2008). In this same report, Norway and Iceland, other Scan­dinavian countries, ranked fifth and twelfth. Table 11.1 shows the ranking of the top 12 countries in terms of knowledge creation and innovation.

Richard Florida and Irene Tinagli ranked three Scandinavian countries (Swe­den, Denmark, and Finland) in the top five places for Euro-Creativity (Florida and Tinagli, 2004). The Euro-Creativity Index is based on three indicators: Technology, Talent, and Tolerance. An amalgam of these factors, together with other measures, indicates trends in creative capacity.

The Scandinavian countries have relatively more multinational corporations (MNCs) than most other countries in the world. Sweden is frequently at the top. While these types of ratings invariably have weaknesses, they nevertheless provide an overall indication.