Questionnaires

The questions asked were mainly about the utilization of vegetation in pekarangan, particularly plant function and its history. Before commencing interviews and data collection, the surveyors sought out the Kepala Dusun or Kepala Kampung (head of hamlet, the informal leader), who assisted in the search for pekarangan and helped to reassure respondents of the positive intentions of the surveyors. In average, to finish one questionnaire took at least 2 h depending on interviewing situation.

The variability and reliability tests were framed throughout the preliminary survey. This questionnaire was tested through four respondents to know the diffi­culties and obstacles during interviewing process. Then, a fixed questionnaire was used for interviewing the 96 respondents in our primary survey.

17.3.1 Biophysical Measurements

Two surveyors measured the biophysical data of pekarangan. Pekarangan size was measured, including open space and built-up areas. Plants and animals (livestock) were also counted. Diameter at breast height (DBH) and height of plants were measured. After that, they joined the interviewer to ask about the production of those plants and livestock. The estimation was up to 1 year of production.

The combination of direct measurement and questionnaire has been proven as the optimal approach to comprehensive investigation for estimating pekarangan function. Direct measurement has been conducted by some researchers, including Soemarwoto (1984, 1987), Christanty et al. (1986), Roshetko et al. (2002; 2007), Harashina et al. (2003), Abdoellah et al. (2006), Montagnini (2006), Das and Das (2010), and Kumar (2011). A comprehensive questionnaire was used, consisting of 17 pages with 228 questions, to gather detailed information on the production and utilization of pekarangan. Those readers with further interest in the questionnaire are invited to contact the authors directly.