Jean-Pierre Samoyault: Andre-Charles Boulle et sa famille. Geneva. 1979
Gillian Wilson: ‘Boulle’. Furniture History Society Bulletin, 1972
Jcan-Neree Ronfort: ‘Lc fondeur Jean-Pierre Mariette et la fin de I’atelier de Boulle’. L’Estampille. September 1984. no. 173; ‘Andre-Gharles Boulle. die Bronzearbeiten und seine Werkstatt im Louvre’. Vergoldete Bronzen. Munich. 1986. vol. и. pp. 459-520; ’La Declaration somptuaire d’Andne-Charlcs Boulle et son atelier’. L’Estampille. February 1985. pp. 60-61
Jules Cuiffrey: Comptes des Bailments du roi sous le regne dc Louis XIV, Paris. 1881 — 1001; Inventairc general du mobilter dc la couronne sous Louis XIV. Paris. 1885-86 Nouvelles Archives de 1‘art franqais: 1873. p. 86:
‘Logements d’artistes au Louvre’ (J. Guiffrcy); 1880. vol.
II: ‘Sentences et arretes rendus contre Boulle au profit de ses ouvriers’ (J. Guiffrey). p. 316; 1882. vol. ill. pp.
106-10: ‘Deposition du sculpteur Girardon contre Boulle Pierre Verlct: ‘A propos de Boulle et du dauphin’, Nedcrlands Kunsthist. Jaarbooch. p. 31 A. de Champcaux: Lc Mcuble, Paris. 1885. pp. 60-97 E. Molinier: Le Mobilicr franqais aux XV/le et XVIIIe
siccles. pp. 53-80
Henry Havard: Les Boulle. Paris. 1893 Lunsingh Scheurleer: A la recherche du mobilierde Louis XIV. Antologia di belle arte. Rome. 1985. no. 27. pp. 48-49
Daniel Alcouffe: II Mobile francese dal Medicto al 1925, Milan. 1981
Archives de Vart franqais, 1855-56. vol IV. Pierre et Charles-Andre Boulle. cbenistes de Ixniis XIII et Louis XIV
H. Hebert: Dictionnaire pittoresque et historique de Paris, 1766 Jfor the cabinet of Blondel de Gagny)
Gustave Macon. Les Arts dans la Maison de Condc, Paris 1903
EXCERPTS FROM THE ACCOUNTS OF TIIE BATIMF. NTS IHJ ROI RE LATINO TO ВСХЛ. І.Е 20 June-9 November 1672: to Boulle in part payment for the Petite Chambre [of the Queen] at Versailles. 3.700L 8 Slay-8 August 1673: to Boulle in part payment for another dais for the apartments of the Queen at Versailles 1,2001.
/561 Table with Jloral and Ij. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu,
ftewter marquetry on a California I
tortoiseshell ground, с. 1690.
ebeniste. for a marquetry organ case decorated with bronze mounts to lie placed in one of the apartments of the Chateau
I Versailles) 8.0001.
25 May 1681: to Boulk – for his work on the organ for the Appartcments of the Queen at Versailles. 2101.
9 August 1682: to Boulle. ebeniste. for his works 21,9001.
II January-18 July 1683: to Boulle. i4x;niste. on the works in marquetry which he is making for the (-ibinot of Monseigneur J8.000L
28 November 1683: to Boulle. ebeniste. lor 2 marquetry tallies and a stand for a rock crystal cabinet supplied for Monsetgneur le Dauphin 1,6501. 11 Jun/l684 to Boulle, diemste. on 17 gilt-bronze girandoles which he is making for the billiard room in the Petits Appartements of the King 4001. 9 July-17 December: to him for gilt-brass works which he is making for the cabinets of Monseigneur 15,1001.
9 January 1684: to Boulle for a marquetry coffer for Monseigneur. 700L
2January 1685: to Boulle. ebeniste. in part payment for works in marquetry and gilt – bronze which he is making for the cabinet of Monseigneur 6001.
19 August-23 December 1685: in part payment for the parquet which he has laid in the cabinet of Monscigncur and other new works which he is carrying out. 10.3001.
11 November 1685: to Boulle, dxniste. for his time and that of his assistants in repairing the marquetry dais in the Queen’s bedchamber at Fontainebleau. I83L
31 December 1684: to Boulle. tfbeniste. for works m marquetry which he has earned out to the |strquet in the alcove for Madame la Dauphine 1671.
10 February-17 November 1686: to AndnSCharles Boulle. ebeniste. in part payment for the marquetry floor laid by him and the 8 chairs with marquetry, tortoiseshell and brass which he has made for the Cabinet des Bijoux of Monseigneur. 9.102L 16 February 1687: to AmlriJ – Charles Boulle for reinstating and polishing the marquetry floors in the Cabinets of
Monseigneur at the < ‘hateau dc Versailles. 1291.
21 December 1687: to him for days spent by journeymen «•bemstes reinstating the said jsarquets of Monscigncur at Versailles 117L 15 January 1690: to Boulle. cbeniste. for 2 brackets and ‘8 culs-de-lampe’ Ipendants] in gilt – bronze supplied by him for the ( abinct of Monscigncur and for thr* restoration of (> marquetry pedestals 1571.
8 April 1691: to Boulle. ebeniste. for rods or mouldings of bronze, gilded and ungildcd. which he has supplied and positioned on the ehimneypiece in the Petit Appartement of Monsieur at the Palais Royal 231.
9 December /692; obtain 15.174L to lie paid to Andre-Charlex Boulle. ebeniste. which, together with 79.250L already received by him. makes complete payment of 94.424L to cover all the marquetry works which he has carried out in the Cabinet des Bijoux of Morvseigneur le Dauphin during!(>82. 1683 ami 1684 and the four fautcuils and four folding stools which he has supplied for the said (Cabinet in 1686. together with I26L for taxes 15.300L
25 December 1692: to Boulle final payment on 94.4241, for the marquetry works which he installed in the C-abinct des Bijoux (same description as the preceding entry). 15,1741.
15 March-21 June 1699: to the aforesaid Boulle. iHxJmste ami fondeur. for the bronzes made by him for the ehimneypiece at Meudon 4 bases. 2 capitals. 2 pilasters with 4 brackets. 2.492L
6 April 1700: receipt of 700L for
the price of 36 pinewood beams sold to Sr Boulle. ёЫ-niste. on 21 March 1699 and supplied on 17 November | | 7001.
7 February – 7 March 1700: to (’diaries Boulle. eWnistc. for an armoire made by him and placed in the King’s wardrobe at Marly
27 February-30 October 1701: to Andre-Chark-s Boulle. elx-mste. in part payment for 7 tables made by him for the Menagerie at Versailles. 6,4001.
14 August-18 September: to him in part payment for the double gilt-bronze wall lights which he has made for the ehimneypiece in the antechamber of
Monseigneur at Meudon. 850L 30 October-13 November: to him for the clock-stands which be made for the King’s use 6001.
11 December 170І: to Andre- (diaries Boulle. ebeniste. for clock-stands made by him in 1701 1501.
29 October 1702: to Andre – (diarles Boulle. ebeniste. for the repair of the large armoire in bois violet in the King’s wardrobe at the < ’hateau dc Marly 55L 22 June 1704: to Andre-Charles Boulle. ebeniste. for marquetry work with which he repaired a dais in the apartments of the Chateau de Fontainebleau in 1703. I60L
19 February—8 April 1708: to Boulle. ebeniste and caster, for 2 marquetry bureaux made for the King’s Bedchamber at Marlv 2.500L
3 September 1708-18 April 1709: to him for 2 bureaux which he has made for the Palais de Trianon 3.000L 11 February 1712: to the sax! Boulle. (bbiisle. for the marquetry bureau made by him for the apartments of Madame la Dauphine at Versailles in 1711 1.025/.
1 May 1712: to Boulle. іЧх-nistc. for the works in marquetry made by him for the alterations to the bureaux in the Petit Appartement of the late Madame la Dauphine at Versailles in 1712 1201.
25 November 1712: to him for з tortoiseshell marquetry bureau enriched with gilt-bronze mounts which he has made and supplied for the King’s use at the Chateau de Versailles during 1712 I.250L
6 August 1714: to Boulle.
Iblniste and caster, for a commode in amaranth with gilt – bronze mounts made by him for the King’s Bedchamber at Fontainebleau during this year. 1.600L
To him for a bureau with tortoiseshell marquetry and gilt – bronze mounts which he made for the King’s use 1,3501.
I.1ST OF W XJLI. E’s WORKS (WTtH THE EXCEPTION OF d-OCKS) Boulle’s output is enormous It represents more than sixty years of activity of a workshop which
employed 20 assistants in 1685 ami up to 30 in alxxit 1730. It would lx- foolhardy to attempt a comprehensive catalogue The present list is restricted to the principal known works (with the exception of clocks and long-case clocks).
Armoire» with long-ease clocks
1) Wallace Collection (F429): the movement of the clock signed by Pierre (iaudron; the marquetry in con t repart x – Provenance: described in the Deed of Gift by Boulle in 1715. later apjieared in the Dxijeux sale in 1793. lot 546
2) Formerly in the Jean Saidman Collection in premiere partie. Provenance: also descnlied in the Deed of Gift by Boulle in 1715 and then in the catalogue of the Donjeux sale in
Armoires with tlx – legend of Apollo (Apollo and Daphne. Apollo and Marsyas)
3) Wallace Collection (F61. stamped by Dubois), in premiere partie. the sides with allegorical figures of Autumn and Winter Hinges decorated with fleur-de – lyv
4) Wallace(Collection (F62): in premiere partie. the hinges marked with a crowned C Hinges with tooled fleur-de-lys 5.61 Formerly in the Demidoff Gillection. San Donato sale. 24 March 1870. lot 267; the pair in premiere partie reputedly from the Choiseul-Praslin Collection.
7) British Royal Collection. Windsor: in premiere partie. mounts marked with a crowned ‘(V. See C. (diking: The Furniture of Windsor Cast le. 112
8) Private collection: see exh cat Touts XIV. Muss-e des Arts Decoratifs. May 1960. no. 50 |46|
9) Private collection. Paris: with a bow-fronted comice. Appeared in exh cat. Louis XIV. Mux<4- lies Arts Decoratifs. May I960, no 49
Armoire with Apollo’s chariot
10) Formerly in the (Election of the Due de (iramont: sale. Pans. 22 May 1925. lot 51. subsequently Sett Collection; the marquetry mainly in contrcpartie and without a comice; sides decorated with figures of Bacchus and Ceres, Illustrated in
exh. cat. Louis XIV at the Musec des Arts iWoratifs. May 1960. no. 48. |>l. XIV
Armoires of different designs
11) Metropolitan Museum of Art formerly in the Collection of the Due de Gramont; almost identical’to the previous item but without the gilt-bronze bas – reliefs on the doors
12) British Royal Collection, reproduced in C. baking: The Furniture of Windsor Castle, p 111 In contrepartie. in design very close to the armoires. nos 3-8. but with hinges applied in a different manner, the doors decorated with Neo-classical bronze medallions which are tound on several bookcases by Ixvasscur. The marquetry on the doors, very dense, is different from that of Boulle. The doors were perhaps altered by Levasseur.
13) Wallace collection (F63): in premiere partic with a bowed cornice: male and female heads in profile on the doors in gilt- bronze
14) Mus<5e du Louvre (ОЛ44І). marquetry mainly in contre|>artie, cornice decorated with sunflowers. Provenance: from the Royal collection restored by Riescncr in 1774
Armoires with vases of flowers in wooden marquetry
15) Mu$& du I. ouvre (ОЛ5515): corresponds to a drawing by Boulle in the Mus6e des Arts Dfcoratifs. A similar armoire appeared in the sale of the Comte de Wattevillc. 12 July 1779. lot 117 Confiscated from M. de Goguelat during the Revolution 153).
16) The Hermitage; illustrated in Les Art* Decoratifs de CHermitage. Aurora. 1987; identical to the one in the Louvre.
17) Private collection: illustrated in exh. cat. Lotus XIV. Musec ties Arts Decoratifs. May 1960. no. 47. pi. xv. The same composition as the two preceding armoires and identical central panel; the bronze mounts not as rich and without a cornice
Armoires with figures of Aspasia and the Philosopher 18.19) MustVdu Ixxrvre. Paris (OA9518andOA9519): pair in premiere partic. possibly
heightened in the eighteenth century. Provenance: formerly in the Duke of Hamilton’s collection. Hamilton Palace, sale 17 June 1882. lots 672 and 673
Armoires basses with figures of Aspasia and the Philosopher 22.214.171.124) Versailles; three in premise partie (one stamped Delorme and two unstamped) and a fourth in contrepartie stamped by Montigny Provenance: confiscated during the Revolution Irom the Due de Noailles or Lenoir du Brcuil.
24. 25) Versailles. Roudinesco Bequest: pair in contrepartie. (stamped by Montigny) Provenance: sale Paris. 1 December 1966; probably Neoclassical copies made for Julliot. 26. 27) British Royal (Election: illustrated in W. H Pyne. Historyof the Royal Residences. 1819. then in the blue Velvet Closet. Carlton House 28. 29) Chatsworth. Derbyshire: Duke of Devonshire’s collection: pair in contrepartie 30. 31) Formerly in the collection of the Prince de Bcauvau: illustrated in Douglas Cooper. Trhor dart des grander families, p. 301: pair in prem&re l>artic [32).
32. 33) Formerly in the Patino Collection, sale Sotheby’s New York. I November 1986. lot 103 pair in premiere partie. the mounts struck with crowned ‘C. Formerly in the Rothschild Collection, sold in London 1937
34) Ashmolean Museum: in premiere panic together with a copy.
35) Formerly in the Sheremeticv Collection: in contrepartie. illustrated in Denis Roche: Le Mobiher franqais en Rustic.
36) Musee du Louvre: a single cupboard. Provenance: originally in the Tuilerics.
37.381 Palais de lltlyslc. Paris: pair from the Tuilerics in the nineteenth century and before that a confiscation at the time of the Revolution.
39) Mobilier National. Paris: one armoire. with 8 medallions on the theme of the War with Spain
Armoircs basses with figures of the Seasons
40-43) Versailles 4 low armoires. seized during the
/57/ Thermometer; with its pair forming a barometer, datable с. 1720; the marine symbols tlobster and anchor), identical to those found on the lx
lion clock illustrated at /45/, suggest that it was also made for the Comte de Toulouse, Grand Admiral of France. < Private collection I
/58/ Long-case clock with Saturn mask, almost certainly the example bought from Boulle in і 707-8 by Prince Henry-Jules de Bourbon-Conde for the Petit Luxembourg, the movement being then by Rabby. (Sotheby’s Monaco, 25 June 1982, lot 287)
Revolution from the Due de Noailles. corresponding to one of the plates in the engraved folio of Boullc’s designs. Two arc in prcmi&rc partic. the other two in contrepartie
44. 451 Waddesdon Manor. Buckinghamshire (cat. nos 37. 38); pair in premiere partie with figures of Bacchus and Ceres, simpler examples than the previous ones, presumably altered in the eighteenth century
Armoircs basses of different design
46) Chatsworth. Duke of Devonshire’s collection: armoire in premiere part ic decorated on the front with figures of Mercury and Venus
47) Sale Chnstie’s London. 3 July 1986. lot 147. subsequently Galcrie Fabre: cornice identical to the one on the armoire in the Louvre, the Hermitage and the Wallace Collection.
Low bookcases with glazed doors and figure of Pomona 48-53) Musoe du Louvre: 5 decorated with figures of Pomona and one with the figure of Mars. Provenance: Due de Bourbon at Chantilly.
Heightened in tire nineteenth century for the Gallery of the Chateau de Saint-Cloud.
54.55) Wallace Collection (F386. 387) (stamped by Delorme) Pair in premiere partie decorated with figures of Pomona
56.56Л) Formerly in the Anna Gould Collection: a pair in premiere panic, decorated with the figure of Pomona.
57.58) Galerie Segoura. pair in prem&re partie decorated with a figure of Pomona on one and Ores on the other Formerly in Mmc Walter-Guillaume’s Collection
59.60) Private collection. Geneva: pair in premiere panic, one decorated with figure of Pomona and the other with Bacchus. Formerly in the Helena Rubinstein Collection 119J.
lx>w bookcases with glazed doors, decorated with putti 61.62) Versailles (V2324): pair in contrepanie. Provenance: Due de Brissac. seized during the Revolution.
63.63Л) Maurice Segoura Collection: pair in premiere partie Provenance: de Blondel d’Azincourt. sold 10 February 1782. lot 414 (60]
Book-eases with glazed doors and a mask of Saturn
64) Formerly in the Kraemer (Collection, sale Pans, 2 June 1913. lot 358; mounts marked with a crowned ‘C
65) Versailles: Roudincsco Bequest; with an armoire on top. with glazed doors.
Low bookcase with two glazed doors
66.67} Sale Pari», foude Couturier Nicolay. lot 151 (pair stamped by Delorme): in premiere panic.
68.69) Formerly in the Bom de Castellano Collection: illustrated in Molimer. Le Mobil, er а и XVII et au XVIIIt siecle. pi. V: pair of bookcases.
Bureaux plats with 8 legs, dating from c.1690 70) Alexander & Berendt Ltd Formerly in the Jacques Helft Collection; illustrated in exh. cat. Louis XIV. Musfe des Arts Dccoratifs. 1960. pi. XXXI. In fruitwood marquetry (50).
71 > Longleat. Wiltshire: Marquis of Bath’s collection: in fruitwood marquetry with lambretfuins veneered in pewter and blue tinted horn.
Bureaux plats with six legs
72) Vaux-le-Vicomte. de Vogue Collection (stamped by Levasseur): premiere partie with female heads at the comers. Corresponds to one of the plates in the engraved folio of designs by Boulle (251
73) Formerly in the Ashburnham anti Patino Collections: illustrated in Connaissance des Arts. August 1969. pi. 61: in premiere partie. with 3 convex drawers and masque cn peltas on the sides. Corresponds to one of the plates in the engraved folio of Boulle’s designs |26|.
Bureaux plats with satyr heads and projecting central drawer
74) Boughton House. Northamptonshire: IXikeof Bucclcuch’s collection: illustrated in Connaissance des Arts. October 1979. p. 78: with tortoiseshell
marquetry in premitrre partie
75) Formerly in the Roussel Collection, sale Sotheby’s Monaco 22 July 1986. lot 550: marquetry in contrepartie of brass and ebony-
76) Private C-ollection. Neuilly: marquetry in premiere partie
77) Formerly in the Tannouri Collection, sale. Ader. 15 November 1983. lot 42: marquetry in premiere panic in brass and ebony.
Bureaux plats with satyr head and recessed central drawer
78.79) Louvre: pair of bureaux, one in premiere partie. the other in contrepartie. the legs terminating in jarrets d’ammaux (animals’ knuckles), comer – mounts formed of scrolls with satyrs’ heads
80.81) Wallace (Collection (F427): two bureaux, one in premiere partie. the other, in contrepartie
82) J Paul Getty Museum (85 DA.23). formerly in the Michel Meyer (Election: in contrepartie.
83) Museum of I Xcorativc Arts. Budapest, formerly in the Festetics Collection: in contrepartie.
84) British Royal Collection: in contrepartie.
85) Frick Collection in contrepartie.
Bureaux plats of a particular model
86) Private collection. Paris: illustrated in Architectural Digest. IXcember 1979. p. 56
87) L’ppark. West Sussex: with a cartonnier set on top of the bureau; in premiere partie, scrollshaped comer-mounts
88) Sale Sotheby’s New York. 3 May 1986. lot 158 bureau in ebony with serre-papiers; scroll – shafied comer-mounts.
Bureaux plats with Chinese heads
89) Sale Christie’s Geneva. 18 November 1974. lot 54: in premiere partie. the sabots formed of foliate scrolls, decorated with masks of Heraclitus and Democritus
90) Sale Sotheby’s. 4 March 1989. lot 268: in contrcpartic. identical to the preceding but with a top entirely in marquetry.
(59j Armone portraying the legend of Apollo: the bas-reliefs portray Apollo and Daphne and Apollo flaying Marsyas, from Ovid’s Metamorphoses (Wallace Collection, Ijondon)
Bureaux plats with female heads
91) Private collection. Paris, formerly in the Due de Gramont (Collection: in premiere partic. illustrated in Conmnswnce des Arts. November 1%3. p 92.
92) Private collection. Paris: in premitre partie.
93) Formerly in the Marquis de Vogue (Collection, illustrated in Les Ёbfnista du XVIIIe siecle franca is. Hachctte Соліміодлсе des Arts. p. 33: in premitre partie with a cartonnier surmounted by a clock with reclining figure of Time.
9A) Formerly in the Foulc (Collection, subsequently Wildenstein (Collection, illustrated in Molinicr. Les Arts appliques a I’mdustne. p. 69: in
premitre partie. with a serre – (xipiers on the desk surmounted by a clock in the form of a globe.
95) Sale Sotheby’s London. 27 June 1988. lot 74: in premitre partie. decorated with masks of Democritus and Heraclitus.
96) Private collection. Paris: in contrepartie. the escutcheons in the form of cocks’ heads
97) Private collection. Geneva: formerly in the Prince de Wagram (Collection; in contrepartie. the escutcheons decorated with female heads.
98) Sale Paris. 23 May 1924. lot 133: in contrepartie. with a cartonnier surmounted with a clock with the reclining figure of Time.
99) Formerly in the Fountains Abbey (Collection: sale (Christie’s in 1966; private collection. Paris; in contrepartie; stamped Delorme.
100) Archives Nationales.
Pans: bureau said to have belonged to Michelet
101) Music tie Versailles, in ptemilre partie Probably the bureau belonging to the Due de Bourbon saved from the fire in Boulle’s workshop in 1720 (information fromC. Baulez)
Stands for coffers or cabinets
102) (Chatsworth. Duke of Devonshire’s collection: pair of stands with the front supports replaced by caryatids wearing turbans.
(Cabinets on stands with figures of I lerculex and ( bnphale
103) J Paul Getty Museum
(77. DA. IK in tortoiseshell and fruitwood marquetry, decorated with fleurs-de-lys on the cornice; can be dated to c. 1693(49).
101) Drumlanrig Castle. Dumfries and Calloway IXike of Bucdeuch’s collection; almost identical to the preceding; can be dated toe. 1693; illustrated in ConruiiMdnce des Arts. December 1976. p. 81.
Cabinets decorated with floral marquetry
105) Wallace (kvllection (F16). in fruitw<mxI marquetry with 14 drawers in the upper section, the cornice decorated with fleurs-de- lys; supported on a stand with figures representing the Seasons
106) Cleveland Museum of Ait; cabinet without its stand, almost identical to the one at Versailles with a parrot in marquetn on the door
107) I Xumlanrig Castle: Duke of Bucdeuch’s collection; almost identical to the preceding. A parrot in marquetry on the door, supported on a stand with figures representing the Seasons.
108) Private collection.
Ceneva. acquired from Perpitch: very similar to the preceding (Mcccs. stand painted red
109) Versailles: cabinet without stand, identical to the one at Drumlanrig. with small drawers in the cornice, acquired by Louis- Philippe in 1834
Large domed cabinets
110) Houghton House: Duke of Bucdeuch’s collection: illustrated m Connaissance des Arts. October 1979. p. 76; supported on an English gilded stand It bears the arms of a cardinal of the Colbert family.
111) Hermitage. Formerly in the Sheremetiev Collection: illustrated in Denis Roche. Le Mobilier franca is en Rustic, pi, iv Supported on a Louis XVI Boulle – marquetry base. Provenance; Grimod dc la Reynii-re sale. 21 August 1797. lot 106(39)
11І, 113) Formerly in the Wallace Collection. Sir John Murray Scott sale. June 1913. lot 52, then Hillingdon Collection, sale Galerie Charpcntier. Pans.
15 October 1953: pair of cabinets without I vases
Small low cabinets decorated with medals and lions’ feet 114) Music du Louvre. OA
5453; in premiere partie with medal of Louis XIV (stamped by Levasseur). Provenance: I, cnoir du Breuil.
115) Music du Louvre (OA 5454). pendant to the preceding piece in contrcpartic with medal of Louis XIV. Same provenance (stamped by Lcvasseur)
116. 117) Wallace Collection (F391 and F392): pair of cabinets in contrcpartic. decorated with medals of Henry IV on oik* and Sully on the other; on spiral feet
118) Wanstead House. Essex: sale 10 June 1822. lot 17; with medal of Henry IV
119) Victoria and Albert Museum in premiere partie with medal of Henry IV (stamped by Webwcilcr).
120. 121) Wnghtsman Collection. New York; formerly in the Lady Baillie Collection, pair of cabinets with medal of Henry IV (one is supposed to be a copy of the other dating from 1785)(38).
122) Formerly in the Duke of Hamilton Collection, Hamilton Palace Sale 19 June 1882. lot 174. subsequently Kracmer Sale.
Paris. 28 April 1913. lot 153: marquetry different from that on all other examples 123. 124) Formerly in the Due tie Gramont Collection, sale Paris. 22 May 1925. lot 68: pair of cabinets decorated with medals of Henry IV and Sully, one in premiere partie. the other in contrcpartic. Provenance:
Earls of Essex. London, 1893
Cabinet* on stands 125. 126) Music du Louvre. OA 5451 and 5452 (stamped by Lcvasseur): the top identical to preceding items; in premilre partie with medal of Louis XIV; slant! with two square tapering legs decorated with rams’ heads and a central splayed leg 127,128) Musee du Louvre. OA5468 anti 5469: pair of cabinets in premiere partie. decorated with the figure of l^ouis XIV. stand with two supports of square section decorated with rams’ heads and central splayed leg
Cartonnicrs 129) Blenheim Palace. Oxfordshire: IXike of Marlborough’s collections large cartonmer in premiere part ic surmounted by a set of shelves
with figures of the Fates and a sphinx clock
130) Wallace (aillection (F413): upper section of a cartonmer with the Fates, surmounted by a clock with the Fates and dial signed Ivy 1-е Roy
Sarcophagus-shaped coffers 131. 132) J Paul Getty Museum 182 DA 1-2) pair of coffers, one in premiere partie. the other in contrepartK*. with differing bases, one on six square tapering legs, the other on two square tapering legs with central truncated support. ()ne of these coffers was probably made by Boulle for the Grand Dauphin in 1684 (14)
133) Blenheim Palace; Duke of Marlborough’s collections: coffer idcntocal to the preceding examples The base, кіспікаї to that of coffer (132] with which it may originally have formed a pair, has been altered; the squarc tapenng legs have been replaced by caryatids with turbans; on the other hand the central support is not truncated. Possibly the example that appeared in the Julliot sale in 1777
134) Sale Sotheby’s Monaco.
23 June 1976. lot 20 small example which was included in the exhibition Louis XIV. Pans. 1960.no 179
( kvffres de toilette 135-138) Boughton House: IXike of Bucdeuch’s collection two pairs, one in premise partie and the other in contrcpartic
139) Formerly in the Earl of (kitheart Collection, sale Sotheby’s London. 20 June 1975. lot 38; in premiere partie.
140) Formerly in the Prince Belosselski-Belozerski Collection, St Petersburg; illustrated in Denis Roche. Le Mobilier fran^ais en Rustic, pi. XI. viii (bronze mounts stamped with crowned
141) British Royal Collection. 142. 143) Wallace Collection (F411 and 412): pair, one in premilre partie. the other in contrcpartic. with added globes and crowns.
144. 145) Formerly in the Achille Seillierc Collection, sale Paris. 9 March 1911. lot 89 pair, one in premilrc partie. the other in contrcpartic
146) Formerly in the de Vogue Collection, then Segoura Gallery.
in contrcpartic (411 147.148) Formerly in the Helena Rubinstein Collection, sale Parke Bemel: pair 149) Sale (Christie’s Dvndon. 20 June 1985. lot 60 150.151) Houghton Hall Collection of the Marchioness of Cholmondeley; pair of caskets
Coffrcs de toilette on stands with curved legs 152.153) Schloss Moritzburg, formerly in the Saxon Royal Collections. A pair, one in premilrc partie. the other in contrcpartic.
154) Sir I Robert Al>dy| Collection, illustrated in Connaissance des Arts. (Xtober 1960. in prem&re panic.
155) Blenheim Palace. Oxfordshire. Duke of Marlborough’s collection
( Kther coffrcs dc toilette
156) Chatsworth: IXike of Devonshire s collection; small casket supported on an English giltwood table.
157) Galerie Gismondi. with small variations but similar to the usual type: clasps in the form of cranes (symbols of vigilance)
Commodes with doors decorated with a caduccus
158) J. Paul Getty Museum (84 DA 58). formerly in the Cholmondeley Collection, sale Christie’s 12 April 1984: decorated with Ivons’ masks and heads of bacchantes (65)
Sarcophagus-shaped commodes with winged female heads
160.161) Versailles: pair wqiplicd by Boulle in 1708 for the Bedchamber of Louis XIV and placed in the Bilvliothlquc Mazarine after the Revolution. 162) Metropolitan Museum of Art I. insky Collection: with a verde antico marble top. formerly in the Winston Guest
163.164) Vaux-lc-Vvcomte, Comte P. de Vogue Collection: pair, one stamped by Lcvasseur and the other by Saint-Germain
165) Petworth House. West Sussex, from the Hamilton Palace Sale in 1882
166) Formerly in the Jean Lombard Collection (see exh cat les Deux Grands Sux tes de
Versailles. Mus& d’Art ct Histoire, Geneva. 1953. no. 8).
Commodes with lions’ heads and masques in the form of peltas
167. 168) Formerly in the Wildenstein (Election, subsequently ( )jjch and (‘.lore Collections, sale Christie’s Monaco. 25 June 1979. lot 31 pair, one in premiere partie and the other m contrepartie (stamped by Levasseur); from the Julliot sale. 20 November 1777. lot 698 and 699. sold for 1.400L. Ix>th to la.*brun |44].
Oval’ (also called ‘drum* shaped’) commodes 169. 170) Wallace Collection (F403 and 404): pair in brass marquetry on a red tortoiseshell ground, ‘rouge griotte’ marble top
171) Henry Mcllhcnny Collection. Philadelphia pair, with marquetry in premiere partie. from the Hamilton Palace Sale. 19 June 1882. lots 1282 and 1283
172) Formerly in the Marquise de Ganay (Collection, sale Paris. 6 May 1922. lot 255: commode in ebony.
173) Sale Sotheby’s London, 17 April 1964. lot 27: in premiere partie.
174) Sale Pans. Palais Gallic». 12 December 1961: marquetry in contrepartie. stamped by Levasseur.
175) Formerly in the de Pauw (Collection, sale Sotheby’s Monaco. 23 June 1986: with floral marquetry of fruitwood.
( -oinmode of a unique type 1761 Wallace Collection (F402): stamped by Levasseur, with two drawers, marquetry in premiere partie |43).
‘Arch-shaped* commodes with fauns’ heads
177) Muscc du Louvre (ОЛ
5477) : in premiere partie with Portor marble top Provenance: sale of the Cabinet of M. Le Bocuf. 8 April 1783. lot 207
178) Musee <lu Louvre (()A
5478) : in contrepartie. with marquetry top. also from the M. Le Bocuf sale, 8 April 1783. lot 206
179) Chateau dcChaal is. formerly in tlie Jacquemart Andre Collection: in premiere
180) Boughton House: Duke of Buccleuch’s collection: illustrated in Connaiaance des Arts. October 1978. p 100
181) Formerly in the Cholmondeley (Collection, sale Christie’s. 6 December 1979. lot 137: this piece was revcnccred in mahogany in the 19th century
182) Formerly in the luidy Ravensdalc Collection, sale Christie’s London. 22 June 1989. lot 108. in contrepartie.
183) Private collection. Paris: illustrated in LeXVIleSiicle fran^ais. Hachcttc. p. 65: sold Galerie Charpentier, Paris. 1957
184) Formerly in the Victor de Rothschild Collection, sale Sotheby’s. 19 April 1947. lot 25
185) Newby Hall. Yorkshire.
( Xtagonal pedestals 186. 187) Frick Collection: pair of pedestals, one in premiere, the other in contrepartie.
188.189) Sale Sotheby’s London. 20 June 1982. lot 163: pair of pedestals with concave sides in contrepartie 190. 191) J. Paul Getty Musucm (88. DA 75). Formerly in the Baron Alain dc Rothschild Collection: sale Couturier – Nicolay. 4 December 1987, lot 112: pair of pedestals in contrepartie. fitted with a door. Provenance: sale of the stock of the marchand-joaillicr Alexandre IXibots. 18 December 1788. lot 168
192. 193) Formerly in the I hike of Hamilton’s collection. Hamilton Palace Sale, subsequently sale Sotheby’s New York. 31 October 1987. lot 129 pair of pedestals in premiere partie Provenance: sale of the stock of Dubois. 18 December 1788. lot 169
Pedestals with aprons 194-99) Mus& du Louvre: six pedestals (two stamped by Levasseur and Severin anti another by Levasseur), four in premiere partie and two in contrepartie.
200. 201) Formerly in the Goudchaux (Collection. Loudmer sale. Paris. 25 April 1979. lot 99 pair of pedestals in contrepartie on a pewter ground.
202-05) Stratfield Saye House. Hampshire: Duke of Wellington’s collection; four pedestals.
/61J ‘Pedestal with apron depu ted in Manette’s engraved folio of Boulle’s designs. This type was much repeated up to 1800. Several examples in the Louvre
are stamped Severin or levasseur who restored them in the 1770s.
IArchives Galerie Aveline, Paris)
/62/ Pair of bow-fronted pedestals of the early eighteenth century: similar pedestab are mentioned in various eighteenth – century sales where they are all attributed to Boulle. iGalerie Airline, ParisI
206-09) Uppark. West Sussex: four pedestals in premiere partie 210-13) Chatsworth: Collection of the Duke of Devonshire: four pedestals.
214. 215) Formerly in the Rothschild Collection, subsequently Caernarvon, sale Sotheby’s tendon. 24 June 1988. lot 73: pair of pedestals in premiere partie 216. 217) Formerly in the Tanrvouri Collection, sale Fans.
15 November 1983. lot 41 (one stamped by Lcvasteur); pair of pedestals in premiere partie 218. 219) Formerly in the Dird Trevor Collection, sale Christie’s. 14 April 1983. lot 93: pair of pedestals in premiere partie 220. 221) Sale Couturier – Nicolay. 16 June 1983. lot 56 pair of pedestals in premiere partie.
222-24) Versailles: three pedestals in contrepartie (in the apartments of Mme de Maintcnon).
Bow-fronted pedestals 225.226) Chatsworth: Collection of the Duke of IXrvonshirc: pair in premiere partie.
227. 228) Formerly in the Baronne van Zuylen Collection, illustrated in Connaissance des Arts. April 1968: pair in contrepartie
229. 230) Formerly in the I. outs Guiraud Collection, sale Ader. Paris. 10 December 1971. lot 117 pair in premiere partie. also in exhibition Louts XIV. Paris. I960
231.232) Formerly in the Hubert de Saint-Senoch Collection, sale Sotheby’s Monaco. 4 December 1983. lot 219: pair in contrepartie.
233. 23-1) Formerly in the Lady Baillie Collection, sale Sotheby’s London. 13 December 1974. lot 162: pair in premiere partie
Square tapering pedestals 235. 236) Victoria and Albert Museum: Jones (killection: pair in premiere partie. with a small piece of paper bearing the date 1693 found under the veneer 237. 238) Private collection. Geneva: pair in premiere partie. formerly in the J. Bloch Collection, sale 21 May 1957. lot 76
239. 240) Formerly in the Charles Stein (Collection.
illustrated in H Havard. Les Boulle. p 17.
241. 242) Formerly in the Marquis dc Vogue Collection, illustrated in Les Lbemstes dи XVIIe siecle. Hachettc. p. 33: pair in premiere partie
Gueridons with scrolled feet and baluster stem 243- 46) Music du Louvre: Grog Bequest two pairs of gueridons. one (ОЛ 10450) stampedJ.-L.-F. Delorme, the other (OA 10451) from the I Xibois Chefdebien sale. 13 February 1941, lot 113.
247. 248) Formerly in the Dashwood Collection. West Wycombe House, sale Christie’s. 20 June 1985. lot 72: pair of gueridons almost identical to the preceding examples [25|
249- 52) Formerly in the Karl of Warwick’s collection.
Warwick Castle, sale Christie’s. 30 May 1968. lot 76: four gulridons.
253-54) Formerly in the Anna Gould Collection: a pair 255. 256) Don Bartolomeo March Collection. Palma dc Majorca a pair
257. 258) Wallace (Election (F417 and 418): pair of gueridons with stems differing from those of the preceding examples.
Gueridons with scrolled feet and three-sided stem 259. 260) J Paul Getty Museum (87. DA. 5): pair 261) Private collection. Pans single guertdon
Gueridons with pointed feel
262. 263) Formerly in the Anna Gould (Collection, sale Sotheby’s Monaco. 14 June 1982. lot 494; prototype found on pi 4 of the folio of engraved plates of Boulle’s designs
Medal-cabinet 264) Resident. Munich: Mun/.sammlung: large medal- cabinet with two doors with floral marquetry, illustrated in Kurfiirst Max И та тієї. Munich. 1976. no 412
Small mcdal-cabincts 265. 266) Formerly in the Levy Gallery: pair of mcdal-cabinets in amaranth
267.268) Bibliothequo Nationalc. Pans: pair of medal-
cabinets in premiere partic, confiscated during the Revolution from the Prince dc Condi.
269) Wallace Collection (F50) supplied by the dealer Delarouc to the Duchessc de Berry
Side-tables with six legs and satyrs’ heads
270. 271) Wallace Collection: pair of tables F424 (stamped Dubois) and F425 (stamped Leleu); top of one veneered with a triumphal carnage drawn by oxen, and the other with a birdcage drawn by monkeys; stretcher with added Neoclassical vases
272) Formerly in the Raoul Лпсеї Collection (stamped Dubois): with marquetry of tinted horn, sale Saint-Gcrmain – en-Laye. 25 May 1986 (28).
273) Formerly in the Anna Gould. Duchesse de Talleyrand Collection, sale Sotheby’s Monaco. 14 June 1982. lot 494 veneered with a triumphal carriage drawn by oxen; with scrolled acanthus feet of a different type (29).
274) Formerly in the Dennery Collection, sale Christie’s London, 14 April 1983. lot 80: the foliate front feet struck with crowned ‘C: in premiere partic veneered with a triumphal chariot drawn by oxen.
275.276) Private collection. Paris: a pair with marquetry tops, exhibited by Maurice Segoura at the Biennale. 1982.
277. 278) Private collection. Paris: pair of consoles with marble tops, probably formerly in the Jules Strauss Collection. 279) Bayerisches Nationalmuseum: in premiere partic. the marquetry top replaced by a leather top. illustrated in exh cat Kurfiirst Max Emanuel. Munich 1976. p 179.
(63j Commode in palisander, in form close to a drawing in the Musee dcs Arts D&oratifs; the escutcheons are fashioned as masks of Daphne, a theme running through Boulle’s work. (Sotheby’s Monaco, 6 February 1978, lot 147)
Side-tables with six legs decorated with female heads 280. 281) Galcrie Michel Meyer: pair of consoles, exhibited at the Biennale in 1986. 282. 283) Formerly in the Earl of Harrington Collection, sale Sotheby’s. 22 November 1963. lot 69: pair of consoles identical to the preceding examples but with marble tops
284) Formerly in the Roussel Collection, sale Sotheby’s Monaco. 22 June 1986. lot 554: certain of the bronze mounts struck with the crowned ’C’. in contrcpartie (stamped Slvcrin); veneered with the triumphal chariot.
285) Formerly in the Cornelia. Countess of Craven Collection, sale Sotheby’s. 15 December 1961. lot 170
Small consoles with lions’ heads
286) Waddesdon Manor (cat. no. 84): marble top and three legs; close to the example in the Comte du Luc sale. 22 December 1777. lot 44 and the 1-е Bocuf sale in 1783. lot 213.
287) Wallace Collection (F56): with marble top and only two legs, the frieze decorated with lambrequins and a faun’s mask in the shape of a pelta. an almost identical table (with rams’ heads in place of lions’ heads) is
described in the Donjeux sale, 29 April 1793. lot 550. and earlier in the Randon de Boisset sale in 1777. lot 784.
Small corner-tables in the form of stoob of a type made for the Mlnagcric
288. 289) Victoria and Albert Museum: Jones Collection (cat. nos 1015-1015a-1882): pair with prem&rc partic tops (15). 290. 291) Longleat: Marquis of Bath’s collection: pair with marquetry tops.
292. 293) Sale Pans. ( xxiturier – Nicolay. 2 December 1975: pair of tables in premiere partic with marble tops.
Ebony consoles with two legs 294. 295) Formerly in the Lucien Guiraud Collection, sale Ader, Parts. 12 June 1973. lot 97: pair of consoles with central mask of an old man.
Small tables with cabriole legs 2%) Formerly in the Armailll Collection, subsequently Wildenstein. Akram Ojjth sale. Sotheby’s. 25 June 1979. lot 10 (stamped by N Petit).
297. 298) Sale Paris. 10 June 1968. lot 63: pair of tables in premiere partie with pointed feet, featured in the exhibition Le Cabinet de I’amateur, 1956. no. 216.
299) Sale Sotheby’s New York. 13 October 1983. lot 481
Small tables en bureaux
300) Music Condi. Chantilly: in premiere partie. with marquetry top. Confiscated
during the Revolution from Lenoir du Brcuil.
301) Sale Sotheby’s New York. 7 May 1983. lot 207: in contrepartie with leather top Same provenance as preceding.
302) Formerly in the Earl of Warwick Collection, subsequently de Pauw. sale Sotheby’s Monaco. 23 June 1986: with square tapering legs.
303) Formerly in the Wildenstein Collection, sale Sotheby’s Monaco. 25 June 1979: with scrolled legs crowned with winged female heads (54.55|.
304) Formerly in the Dashwood Collection. West Wycombe House, sale Christie’s. 20 June 1985. lot 72: with scrolled legs decorated with female heads
305) J. Paul Getty Museum (91. DA. 100): with scrolled legs.
306) J. Paul Getty Museum (83. DA. 22): with scrolled legs.
Tables ’en hitches’
307) Formerly in the I – ady Baillic Collection, sale Sotheby’s London 
308) Formerly in the Earl of Craven Collection, sale Sotheby’s London. 17 March 1963. lot 161 (stamped by Erstet), and sulssequently sold New York. 28 October 1978. lot 110.
309) Wallace Collection (F426): stamped by Erstet who possibly altered it in the 1750s.
chant: the inventory concludes with a list of stocks of wood which he stored on the quai de la Rapee (nearly
7,0 planks). The total assets were valued at 565,000 livres.
In the workshop there were seven work-benches fitted out with their tools as well as large stocks of exotic woods, proof that Gerard maintained his original craft of £b£niste. The list of these woods gives an interesting indication of their respective values at the time (see Appendix).
Of the furniture, apart from 80 clocks, there were more than 150 pieces in various states of completion. Clocks therefore represented a third of the workshop’s total production. Among the cabinet pieces, commodes were most numerous: there were 38 examples listed, estimated at around 100 livres each, of which 16 were ‘commodes en tombeaux’ and seven a la Regence’. Of the woods used for commodes, palisander was the most common (13) followed by bois de Cayenne (seven) and kingwood (six). The commode in Gerard’s bedchamber was described as ‘in ebonized wood with brass stringing’. Apart from the commodes, the workshop mainly produced bureaux plats (23 are listed in ebonized wood, in kingwood and in amaranth) as well as encoignures (14 examples, of which six were in amaranth, two in palisander and two in bois de Cayenne). Several of the encoignures were tall ‘with two small doors at the base and two further doors above’, sometimes with a central drawer or an open recess with marble top. The prices varied between 24 livres for a pair of low encoignures and 300
livres for a pair of’tall examples in amaranth’. Various games-tables are listed (trictrac in amaranth or a quadrille-table), but this was obviously not an important part of Gerard’s production. No pieces in lacquer are mentioned, but there were a quantity of ‘cabarets’ or ‘cabaret trays in japanned wood’ or ‘bois des Indes’. The inventory also lists 11 secr£taires, a then fashionable piece of furniture, as well as eight serre-papiers and the same number of armoires. There were 13 bookcases, some tall, others of breast height, of which four were with marquetry on a tortoiseshell ground, three in ebonized wood and two in amaranth.
The pieces of furniture with the highest values in the inventory were:
No. 155) Two large armoires with tortoiseshell marquetry with two large doors at the front and two small doors on either side, all decorated with gilt-bronze figures, priced at 4.000L
One of these armoires later belonged to the minister Machault d’Arnouville and came to light recently (sale Christie’s Monaco, 18 June 1989, lot 212). The longstanding attribution of this piece to Boulle cannot be sustained; it must be the work of one of his followers, perhaps Poitou or Cressent. Other items in Gerard’s inventory are more reminiscent of Boulle, such as two chandeliers of a well-known Boulle type:
No. 250) An 8-branch chandelier representing Fame in gilt-bronze, priced at 450L No. 286) As above.
/65/ (left) Bureau plat in ebony stamped N. G. The broken curve at the top of the legs seems typical of Noel Gbard. I Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio)
Besides these chandeliers, G£rard offered sumptuous gilt-bronze or rock-crystal chandeliers to his clientele at very high prices (altogether a dozen chandeliers priced between 400 and 6,000 livres) as well as mounted porcelain and busts in marble. He also had a huge assortment of artefacts in bronze: 41 pairs of wall lights are listed, mostly ‘with two branches in gilt – bronze’ but also 17 pairs ‘in black bronze’, that is. ready for gilding, and only four pairs ‘in varnished bronze’. Forty-two pairs of chenets are mentioned, some of which can be recognized. These models are described as being in the form of ‘a salamander’, ‘a goat’, ‘horses’; ‘children and goats’; ‘the wolf and the boar’, ‘the fable of the fox and the stork’: ‘the hunt’, ‘an eagle’, ‘dragons’, ‘a trophy’, ‘rocailles with a lion’s head’; ‘dolphins’ and ‘farmyard’. The shop also stocked candelabra in gilt – or silvered-bronze of which there were twenty pairs and three pairs of girandoles.
Gerard stocked not only a number of ‘mounts for commodes’ in ‘black (i. e. ungilded) bronze’, but also quantities of bronze decorations and models, which are listed at the end of the inventory: ’6(X) livres weight of bronze off-cuts, priced at 540L‘: ‘400 livres weight of lead and broken models. 60L’; ‘200 livres weight of cast bronze, priced at 80L It is probable that he was not infringing the guild rules in having bronzes chased in his own workshop for his own furniture. The inventor)’ actually mentions ‘a list of goods drawn up by Oliver de Rouvray and Louis Regnard, both master ciseleurs in Paris, rue des Arcis, whereby they would have admitted having in their possession all the rough casts of chenets, clocks, bases for girandoles and others, all belonging to sieur Сёгагс!, which they had contracted to finish and chase as well as possible, for the price mentioned in the above document’.
The inventory describes a real upholsterer’s stock. Entire sets of Brussels tapestries were offered for sale as well as suites of furniture: more than 100 chairs in gilt wood or walnut covered in damask or needlework and nearly 70 console tables in gilt wood with marble tops.
We believe it is possible to attribute to Noll Gerard a number of pieces stamped ‘N. G.’ and which date to the period 1720 to 1730. These pieces in ebony, palisander or amaranth are in a very particular style, thus facilitating the further attribution of a whole group of furniture to Noll Gerard which until now has remained anonymous. Thus the bureau plat in the
Toledo Museum (stamped ‘N. G.’) (681 enables the attribution to Gerard to be made with regard to several other bureaux in ebony or amaranth with the same broken line above the legs and the same mounts: a bureau in the library at the Arsenal in Paris, another in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum in Munich (67), another in the Residenz at Ansbach. and two further examples which have appeared recently at auction (sale, Sotheby’s Monaco. 22 May 1978, lot 242 and New York. 7 May 1983, lot 210). Similarly, a commode in palisander was sold in Paris on 2 April. 1987, lot 133 (69) and is comparable with three other Boullc marquetry commodes: one in the Kotschoubey sale. Paris. 1906, the second in a Sotheby’s Monaco sale, 23 June 1983, lot 290 (70), and the third at Longleat. Finally, the bureau plat sold at Sotheby’s London on 20 November 1964, lot 121 with exaggeratedly projecting legs opens up the attribution to Gerard of several commodes with Boulle marquetry which have the same characteristics (sale. Paris. 26 November 1979. lot 64. Maitre Oger). Until now experts have not paid attention to the stamp ‘N. G.’, no doubt taking it for a chateau mark. It is likely that many other pieces are stamped in this fashion and that much is still to be learnt about this Iblniste.
Arch. Nat: Min. Cen. Et CXXI – 306: inventory taken after the death of Noel Girard, 17 August 1736 J.-D. Augarde: ‘Etienne Doirat’. The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal, vol. хні, 1985, p. 34. note 23
— 9.000 livres weight of bois de Cayenne priced at 12L the hundred 1.080L
— 650 livres weight of bois rouge of various types, priced at 12L the hundred. 78L
— 1979 livres weight of kingwood priced at 40L the hundred. 7901.
— 737 livres weight of ebony priced at 20L the hundred. 1471. —- 2.150 livres weight of unseasoned amaranth priced at 25L the hundred. 537L
— 100 planks of Dutch oak. 30L