Polyester

The material. Polyesters can be thermosets, thermoplastics, or elastomers. The unsaturated polyester resins are thermosets. Most polyester thermo­sets are used in glass fiber/polyester composites. They are less stiff and strong than epoxies, but they are considerably cheaper. This record is for thermosetting polyester. It cannot be recycled.

Composition

(OOC—C6H4—COO—C6H10)n General properties

Density

1040 –

1400

kg/m3

Price

*4.07 –

4.47

USD/kg

Mechanical properties

Young’s modulus

2.07 –

4.41

GPa

Yield strength (elastic limit)

*33 –

40

MPa

Tensile strength

41.4 –

89.6

MPa

Compressive strength

*36.3 –

44

MPa

Elongation

2-

2.6

%

Hardness—Vickers

9.9 –

21.5

HV

Fatigue strength at 107 cycles

*16.6 –

35.8

MPa

Fracture toughness

*1.09 –

1.69

MPa. m1/2

Thermal properties

Glass temperature

147 –

207

°C

Maximum service temperature

130 –

150

°C

Thermal conductor or insulator?

Good insulator

Thermal conductivity

*0.287 –

0.299

W/m. K

Specific heat capacity

*1510 –

1570

J/kg. K

Thermal expansion coefficient

99 –

180

p, strain/°C

Electrical properties

Electrical conductor or insulator?

Good insulator

Electrical resistivity

3.3 X 1018 –

3 X 1019

pnhm. cm

Dielectric constant

2.8 –

3.3

Dissipation factor

0.001 –

0.03

Dielectric strength

15 –

19.7 106

V/m

Thermosetting polyester is used as the matrix of this glass-reinforced deck chair.

Ecoproperties: material

Annual world production

4 X 107

– 4.05 X 107

tonne/yr

Reserves

*1 X 109

– 1.01 X 109

tonne

Embodied energy, primary production

*84

– 93

MJ/kg

CO2 footprint, primary production

*2.7

– 3

kg/kg

Water usage

*88.1

– 264

l/kg

Ecoproperties: processing

Polymer molding energy

*11.4

– 12.8

MJ/kg

Polymer molding CO2

*0.91

– 1.0

kg/kg

Recycling

Recycle fraction in current supply

0.1

О/

%

Typical uses. Laminated structures; surface gel coatings; liquid castings; furniture products; bowling balls; simulated marble; sewer pipe gaskets; pistol grips; television tube implosion barriers; boats; truck cabs; concrete forms; lamp housings; skylights; fishing rods.