Owing to its low height, the interior part can melt together easily with the edge zones. However, sometimes sensitive species or species with particular beauty should be placed in the edge zone so they will be noticed and can be taken care of in any difficult stages of low management periods.

Field layer and establishment methods

The field layer should be considered of particular importance, especially when considering the visually more open types. The establishment methods comprise a combination of seeding and planting.

Basic management principles

The basic characteristics of multi-stemmed trees and shrubs makes management differ from a normal woodland forestry practice. Management can become difficult because coppice is quite unknown in urban areas today, so we have to adopt new practices, based on a deep understanding of how coppice systems can work in a wider meaning of the term. Particularly, it should be stressed that we have to notice the completely new city functions: functions such as aesthetics, play areas for children, filters for cleaning the air, etc. Therefore, management strategies should be goal directed rather than just trying to copy traditional management ways (Figure 7.21).



(a) Small-scale mosaic with ongoing coppicing, dominated by hazel.


Scania, Sweden (b) Low woodland type of hazel 15 years after planting in Warrington, England, successfully used by children; (c) Pterocarya fraxinifolia, an exotic species used in the Alnarp landscape laboratory, Sweden, as a characteristic low woodland type after 15 years