Meso-eutrophic tall herb communities

If no trees and shrubs are required on an area with wet conditions, a yearly hay-cut in late autumn or spring is necessary. On sites rich in nutrients, tall herb communities develop. Established artificially, they produce an aesthetically pleasing display when enriched with sufficient amounts of flowering forbs between the grasses. Examples for mesotrophic and eutrophic sites are combined in one table because several species can be used in both conditions (Table

Table 8.1. Shade-tolerant perennials

Origin*

Dominant species (5-10/10 m2)

Soil/water

conditions

Height

(cm)

Flowering

Months

Flower

Colour

Aconitum napellus

Eur

Eutrophic

80-120

VI-VII

blue

Carex pendula

Eur

Meso-eutrophic

80-140

V-VII

brown

Chaerophyllum

hirsutum

Eur

Eutrophic

60-110

V-VI

white – pink

Ligularia dentata

E-As

Eutrophic

100-150

VIII-IX

yellow

Matteuccia

pensylvanica

N-Am

Eutrophic

150-200

fern-plant

Molinia arundinacea

Eur

Oligo-

mesotrophic

180-200

VIII-XI

brown

Osmunda

cinnamomea

N-Am, O-As

Eutrophic

120-150

fern-plant

Osmunda regalis

N-Am, Eur, As

Eutrophic

150-200

fern-plant

Solanum dulcamara

Eur, As, N – Afr

Eutrophic

100-150

VII-VIII

purple

Telekia speciosa

E-Eur, W-As

Eutrophic

120-150

VII-VIII

yellow

Thalictrum

aquilegifolium

Eur, E-As

Eutrophic

80-100

V-VI

pink,

white

Companion species (10-30/10 m2)

Carex elongata

Eur, W-As

Meso-eutrophic

30-60

V-VI

brown

Carex grayi

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

70-80

VI-VII

green

Dryopteris cristata

Eu, As, Am

Mesotrophic

60-60

fern-plant

Lysichiton

americanus

N-Am

Eutrophic

80-100

IV-V

yellow

Lysichiton

camtschatcensis

E-As

Eutrophic

80-100

IV-V

white

Lysimachia vulgaris

Eu, As, N-Am

Eutrophic

100-120

VI-VIII

yellow

Mimulus ringens

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

70-90

VII-VIII

blue

Molinia caerulea

Eur, W-As

Oligotrophic

80-100

VIII-IX

brown

Peucedanum palustre

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic

60-120

VII-VIII

white

Symplocarpus

foetidus

N-Am, E-As

Eutrophic

40-60

II-IV

red— brown

Saururus cernuus

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

70-80

VII-VIII

white-

yellow

Ground-covers (20-50/10 m2)

Calla palustris

Cosmopolitan

Eutrophic, acid

15-20

V-VI

white

Carex sylvatica

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic

20-40

IV-VI

green

Geum rivale

W-As

Meso-eutrophic

20-30

V-VI

red

Hydrocotyle vulgaris

Eur

Oligo-mesotr.,

acid

10-20

inconspicuous

flowers

Lysimachia

nummularia

Eur, W-As

Meso-eutrophic

3-5

VI-VII

yellow

Mimulus gattatus

N-Am

Meso-eutroph

30-50

VI-IX

yellow

Myosotis palustris

Eur, As

Mesotrophic

10-40

V-VIII

blue

Stellaria aquatica

Eur, As

Eutrophic

20-60

VI-IX

white

Stellaria palustris

Cosmopolitan

Oligotrophic

10-45

V-VII

white

Thelypteris palustris

Cosmopolitan

Mesotrophic

30-60

fern

Sphagnum-mosses—cuttings pressed on wet soil surface of acid, oligotrophic sites : S. palustre, S. squarrosum, S. angustifolium, S. magellanicum

Scattered plants (up to 50/10 m2)

Leucojum vernum

C-Eur

Eutrophic

15-20 III-IV

white

Trientalis europaea

Eur, N-As

Oligotrophic,

acid

10-15 VI-VII

white

Caltha palustris

Eur, As, N­Am

Meso-eutrophic

20-35 IV-VI

yellow

Primula florindae

C-As

Eutrophic

25-70 VII-VIII

yellow

Primula japonica

E-As

Eutrophic

20-50 V-VI

red

Ranunculus ficaria (bulbs)

Eur

Eutrophic

5-20 III-V

yellow

Sown species

Bidens cernua

Cosmopolitan

Eutrophic

5-100 VIII-X

yellow

Impatiens noli – tangere

Eur, As, W – Am

Mesotrophic

30-100 VII-VIII

yellow

Monoculture species

—not to combine with species mentioned above (10-30/10 m2)

Petasites hybridus

Eur

Eutrophic

70-80 III-IV

red

Equisetum hyemale

Cosmopolitan

Meso-eutrophic

50-70 horsetail

Matteuccia

struthiopteris

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic

70-80 fern

Scirpus sylvaticus

Eur, As

Oligo-

mesotrophic

70-100 VI-VII

green-

brown

Onoclea sensibilis

N-Am, E-As

Meso-eutrophic

50-80 fern

* Eur=Europe; As=Asia; Am=America; N=North; E=East; S=South; W=West; C=Central

Table 8.2. Meso-eutrophic and eutrophic tall herb communities

Origin*

Soil/water

conditions

Height Flowering (cm) Months

Flower

Colour

Dominant species (10-20/10 m2)

Asclepias incarnata

N-Am

Eutrophic

90-120 VII-VIII

pink

Aster puniceus

N-Am

Eutrophic

90-200 VII-XI

purple

Carex

muskingumensis

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

70-90 VI-VIII

brown

Carex paniculata

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic

60-90 V-VII

brown

Carex

Eur, As, N-

Meso-eutrophic

60-90 V-VIII

green

pseudocyperus

Am

Eupatorium

cannabinum

Eur, As

Eutrophic

100-140

VII-IX

pink

Eupatorium

perfoliatum

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

120-150

VII-X

white

Euphorbia palustris

Eur, W-As

Eutrophic

70-100

IV-V

yellow

Filipendula

purpurea

E-As

Eutrophic

80-110

VI-VII

white-pink

Filipendula ulmaria

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic

80-110

VI-VII

white

Filipendula rubra

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

120-160

VI-VII

pink-red

Iris pseudacorus

Eur, W-As

Eutrophic

80-120

V-VI

yellow

Leucanthemella

serotina

E-Eur

Eutrophic

120-150

IX-X

white

Lythrum salicaria

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic

70-120

VII-IX

pink

Mentha aquatica

Eur, As

Eutrophic

40-80

VII-IX

pink-lilac

Senecio paludosus

Eur, W-As

Meso-eutrophic

100-140

VII-VIII

yellow

Veronica longifolia

Eur, W-As

Eutrophic

80-120

VI-VIII

blue

Companion and ground-cover species

(30-60/10 m2)

Achillea ptarmica

Eur, As

Mesotrophic, acid

60-90

VII-VIII

white

Bistorta officinalis

Eur, As, N­Am

Mesotrophic, acid

40-90

V-VII

pink

Cardamine amara

Eur

Mesotrophic

10-60

IV-VI

white

Carex canescens

Cosmopolitan

Mesotrophic, acid

20-45

V-VI

gray-green

Carex diandra

Cosmopolitan

Mesotrophic, acid

30-50

V-VII

brown

Carex flacca

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic,

alkaline

15-20

V-VI

black

Carex ovalis

Eur, As

Mesotrophic, acid

30-40

V-VII

yellow-

brown

Carex nigra

Eur

Mesotrophic, acid

20-30

V-VII

black

Carex panicea

Eur

Mesotrophic

20-50

VI

green-

brown

Geum rivale

W-As

Meso-eutrophic

20-30

V-VI

brown-red

Hypericum

tetrapterum

Eur

Mesotrophic, acid

50-70

VII-VIII

yellow

Juncus articulatus

Eur, As

Mesotrophic

20-50

VII-IX

brown

Lychnis flos-cucculi

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic, acid

40-70

V-VII

pink

Mentha pulegium

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic, acid

20-30

VII-IX

pink-

purple

Mimulus guttatus

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

30-50

VI-IX

yellow

Myosotis palustris

Eur, N-As

Meso-eutrophic

20-30

IV-VII

blue

Scutellaria

galericulata

Cosmopolitan

Eutrophic

10-40

VI-IX

blue-

purple

Ranunculus acris

Eur, As, N­Am

Mesotrophic

25/50

V-VI

yellow

Scattered plants (up to 50/10 m2)

Caltha palustris

Eur, As, N­Am

Meso-eutrophic

20-35

IV-VI

yellow

Cardamine pratensis

Eur, As, N­Am

Mesotrophic

15/30

IV-V

white-

purple

Potentilla erecta

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic, acid

5-10

V-IX

yellow

Succisa pratensis

Eur, W-As

Oligo-

mesotrophic

15-80

VII-IX

blue-lilac

Sown species Aster tripolium

Eur, As

Saline soil

40-80

VII-IX

purple-lilac

Anthoxanthum

odoratum

Eur

Mesotrophic

30-40

V-VII

green

Rhinanthus

serotinus

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic

10-70

V-VIII

yellow

Monoculture species – 50/10 m2)

-only to combine with shallow ground

cover species mentioned above (10-

Carex acuta (=C. gracilis)

Eur, As

Mesotrophic

60-90

V-VI

brown

Carex acutiformis

Eur, W-As

Meso-eutrophic

70-100

V-VI

brown-

green

Carex riparia

Eur, As, E – Am

Mesotrophic

70-110

V-VII

brown-

green

Carex rostrata

Cosmopolitan

Oligo-

mesotrophic, acid

30-70

VI-VII

green

Cladium mariscus

Cosmopolitan

Oligo-mesotr.,

alkaline

80/160

VIII-X

brown

Darmera peltata

N-Am

Eutrophic

100/50

IV-V

pink

Sparganium erectum

Eur, As

Eutrophic

60-80

VII-IX

green

* Eur=Europe; As=Asia; Am=America; N=North; E=East; S=South; W=West; C=Central

8.2). Tall herb communities are not only suitable for wet meadows but also along the shore of streams too, when only a short period of flooding in spring usually occurs. Table 8.2 includes only a few typical ruderals because with the establishment of such a vegetation the soil will be strongly disturbed and there will be enough short-lived forbs appearing spontaneously.