An Overview

Toni Ivergard and Brian Hunt

13.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 327

13.2 Designing New Systems…………………………………………………………………………… 328

13.2.1 The Traditional Approach………………………………………………………… 328

13.2.2 Systems Analysis……………………………………………………………………… 328

13.2.3 Goal Analysis: An Example…………………………………………………….. 331

13.2.4 Function Analysis…………………………………………………………………….. 331

13.2.5 Allocation of Functions……………………………………………………………. 332

13.3 Holistic View of Planning………………………………………………………………………… 335

13.4 Organisation of the Design Process…………………………………………………………. 336

13.5 Job Organisation and Alternative Forms of Automation………………………… 338

References and Further Reading……………………………………………………………………….. 341

13.1 INTRODUCTION

In this section we first consider the development of computerised process control systems. We then discuss some of the problems that the operator of an automated system may experience. Next we describe the advantages of involving the users in the planning process and offer some suggestions for project organisation. A more advanced form of participation in design is action research (AR). This methodology is discussed in a later part of this chapter.

It is clearly important for the planning and design engineering of new control rooms to be carried out in stages. This process should preferably be seen as a contin­uous ongoing task in the organisation. In such a process, the extent to which changes are made varies. Sometimes the changes are small and incremental; at other times, the changes many be large, more comprehensive, and revolutionary. Presented here are a methodology and a philosophy for the development of process control systems and control rooms. The most important points in this philosophy are:

1. The work must start with an unprejudiced and unconditional analysis of goals and functional requirements.

2. Planning for personnel in different job positions must be done in parallel with the technical planning.

3. A systematic method must be used to determine which functions should be done by machine and which by human operators in order to achieve the given aims.

4. Great emphasis should be placed on the design of the interface between the machine and the human operator.

Figure 13.1 shows a schema of a project planning system, which includes the roles of the human factors specialist.