13.2.1 The Traditional Approach
When designing new systems, factories, and products, it is usual to follow the procedure shown in Figure 13.1(a). The designers usually first determine the aim or goal of the system and then decide its technical design. This process is often done in several stages. The overall principal design comes first, followed by a more detailed technical design process. This process produces finished drawings and specifications. Construction can then get under way. Usually during the construction stage, the organisation begins to seek new staff, conducts recruitment activities, and hires new staff as appropriate. Existing staff may also be retrained where staff relocation or transfer to a new system is involved.
Problems occur most often when personnel begin to use the new system. Some people may need further training and various types of instruction and others may be incapable of using the new system. If a large number of personnel cannot use the technology to do the work it may be necessary to alter the technology. Another common problem area concerns environmental issues. It is not unusual for issues in this area to be overlooked. Consequently, environmental requirements may not be fulfilled, and technical measures must also be taken.