Along with increasing the durability of products by choosing higher-quality materials, fasteners, and manufacturing processes that last longer, developers can also identify and eliminate defects and weaknesses that would otherwise prevent a product from working for a long time. Extensive testing can identify some of these, but others can only be witnessed while in use by customers (who often store, use, and maintain products much differently than their manufacturers intended). Close relationships with customers can help track product defects and failures that might appear on other models. (Note that the airline industry does this meticulously.) Also, extended testing of products can generate important data on product dura-
 Make Magazine: www. makemag. com
Ready Made Magazine: www. readymade. com
For decades, Maille, a French manufacturer of condiments, has been selling mustard, mayonnaise, and gherkins in glasses designed to be collected and reused as drinking glasses in the home (see Figure 11.1). Although known for its tasty, premium mustard, the company
 In Latin America, it’s popular to name streets after the dates of important national events.
 The power to transcend paradigms
Here are some things to consider reframing in your discussions in order to redesign systems:
• Ownership (of physical or intellectual property)
• Consumption (as a means toward creating or sustaining something)
 Leadership (Where is it coming from, who is leading, and what are the effects? Who are the catalysts?)
• Change (Who and what does it enable or threaten and who is best prepared for it?)
 What criteria should we use to evaluate new solutions, offerings, or technologies?
 “Extreme” Programming, Spiral Development, and “Agile:” A concurrent developmental approach, especially for software, that starts technical development immediately and rapidly iterates it. Unfortunately, many agile developers try to iterate both customer requirements and technical requirements (front-end and back-end)
 “Skunkworks” was a term coined by engineers at Lockheed in the mid-i940s to describe their secret ad-hoc group developing advanced military aircraft.
 The original Ford Taurus was developed using a skunkworks model. The dedicated team, representing all divisions of the company, was separated from the rest of Ford in order to develop the Taurus.
 Six Sigma: This is a specific, detailed approach to developing quality solutions created by Motorola in the late 1980s. Its purpose was to devise a reliable way to measure
 Waterfall: While strategy is always ongoing within an organization, corporate strategies must be decided, defined, and com-
 “Extreme” Programming, Spiral Development, and “Agile:” Within each of the subphases, “extreme” techniques are very helpful. The tight integration of teams, communication, and rapid prototyping often lead to fast development that is informed by all involved. The trick to making this
 See Highwater’s criteria on page 24.
 VICEX:US vicefund. com
 www. socialinvest. org/resources/mfpc/screening. cfm
 www. sri-advisor. com/funds/analyzer. cgi
 www. globalreporting. org
 www. covive. com/gri
 Product Responsibility (customer health and safety, product and service labeling,
 www. balancedscorecard. org
 makower. typepad. com/joel_makower/2005/05/sustainable_bus. html
 Financial metrics must be integrated with social and environmental metrics. Keeping
 Natural Marketing Institute, 2008
2007 Green Gauge Report
 BBMG. com
 www. culturalcreatives. org
• Be honest, truthful, and accurate.
• Detail the specific part of the product or process the benefit refers to.
• Use plain language that an average member of the public can understand.
• Explain the significance of benefits (without being vague or overstating claims).
• Be able to substantiate benefits.
 Make claims only for “real” benefits (not suspect, though true, benefits that pale in comparison to bigger negative impacts).
• Pictures as well as text must be valid.
• Be sure claims clearly refer to packaging or contents.
 Green marketing and the Trade Practices Act 2008, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. www. accc. gov. au/content/index. phtml/ itemId/815763
 wholefoodsmarket. com/socialmedia/ jmackey/2006/05/26/an- open-letter-to-michael-pollan
 www. michaelpollan. com/article. php? id=80
 http://webcast. berkeley. edu/event_details. php? webcastid=19147
 Use and promote local energy, resources, and labor wherever possible (reducing transportation).
 Teach your co-workers, clients, and partners about sustainability. At least, buy them a book or forward good articles to them. You’ll have more success emphasizing efficiency, cost reductions, risk mitigation, and health improvements than improving ecological or social impacts.
 Implement sustainability in your organization in small ways and grow these over time. Even small changes (like switching to
 Use eco-design strategies appropriate to the product or service solution.
 Develop solutions that become precious in a way that people don’t want to part with them.
 Explore business models that support more sustainable solutions.
 Work with suppliers and manufacturers to explore materials with better social and environmental performance, less toxicity, or better durability.
 Test your claims with your friends or independent customers. If they don’t easily understand what you’ve claimed, you’re in the greenwashing zone.