It is more appropriate for non-evergreen plants to be transplanted before the leaves start to fall and change color, before the soil is frozen in early winter or before the growth starts in spring (Kim, 1988).
188.8.131.52 Transplantation time for evergreen plants
Coniferous trees are generally transplanted during early autumn or late spring. The proper time for the plantation of Latifolius – Broad leaved evergreen plants is generally spring and autumn (Kim, 1988).
1.1.4 Effects of seasons on transplantation
When the ground is not frozen, some species may transplanting any time during the year but woody plants are generally moved in the spring but also they may moved in the fall after leaf drop and before the ground freezes. Fall planting should take place soon after leaf drop. Before the ground freezes in the fall, evergreens are especially prone to winter browning. Therefore, they should be moved late in the summer to early fall. Antitranspirants applying may help reduce the effects of winter desiccation in some species. Fall transplant success may be increased by transplanting hardy plants into sites with good soil moisture and wind protection. When shoot growth is peak, it’s shown that the greatest transplant injury so woody plants are transplanted in late spring and early summer (Jakson et al., 1998).
Spring: Shoot growth in plants prevents them from being damaged from cold weather. This situation will promote root growth before Top growth starts. But as plantation during active growth period will cause various negations, if it is possible, plantations shouldn’t be made during that time. Because when the plants’ roots or branches are pruned, plants loose more water from these parts when compared to the other seasons. Because of these, transplantations shouldn’t be made during the middle of spring when fast growth occurs and at the beginning of summer months (Kim, 1988).
Summer: In summer, plants actively absorb water that is passing through the plants’ xylem. This is why too much sap loss will occur in the cut places of roots during plant transplantations in summer. It is determined that when plants grow in spring and complete their development, some of them accommodate better to the summer transplantation. We don’t need to worry about the sufficient water amount in plants as active transpiration occurs more in hot air (Kim, 1988).
Autumn: Towards the end of summer season and during autumn, there are generally warm weather conditions that prevent root growth. As the days shorten and weather becomes warmer, plant transpiration decrease. Autumn season is the best season for most of the plants’ transplantation. In this season, plants don’t loose too much sap. Citrus sp. (Lemon), Hibiscus sp. (Hibiscus), Bougainvillea sp. are the plant species which can be damaged easily without placing their roots. It is better to transplant this kind of fragile plants in spring (Kim, 1988).
Winter: As the weather is warm and cold during winter, plant activity decrease which is a big advantage for transplantation. Plants can make use of the cold weather in winter. Transplantation can be done if the freezing level of soil is about 30 cm in big trees. But special attention should be given to pores in order not to freeze, and to roots root ball in order not to be broken. Transplantation at about 3 °C weather is proper as plants can be damaged in other weather conditions. No matter what the season is, plants should be protected from freezing and drying. Planting pits should be filled with water a few times before transplantation. Transplantation area should be mulched; after the area is filled with mulch, other irrigation process can be done although the ground is still always wet. Drainage system is crucial for increasing the success of transplantation process (Kim, 1988).