Water supply

In sprinkler irrigation systems, rivers, lakes, well water, dam can use as a source of water. Urban drinking water schemes and wells are generally used in Landscape irrigation.

4.1.1 Pump units

In sprinkler irrigation system, water should be sprayed from the headings under a certain pressure. This pressure is called as a head-operating pressure. In addition in the system, depending on equipment used between water supply and irrigation area, in case of an extra pressure requirement due to the difference of levels with terrestrial and permanent head loss, this requirement is met by pumping station that will be installed on the system. The pump units can be electric or diesel engines. Centrifugal pumps are suited if the height between the pump and the water supply is less than 8 m if not deep well pumps are suited.

4.1.2 Head control

The head control unit that is located between the water supply and the delivery line, is composed of hydro cyclone, sand and gravel filter, fertilizer unit, mesh filter and pressure regulator from the pump to main pipe line. In addition, the components such as check valve, a shut-off valve, pressure gauge, water meter and the equipments such as the nipple, ell and tee combining these components are involved.

4.1.3.1 Fertilization unit

In areas where sprinkler irrigation systems are installed, the fertilization process can be carried out with the aid of a pump unit such as venture tubes or injection pumps, the fertilizer tank that will be placed in head control unit. Due to different fertilization requirements of different plants, this process is used more easily and effectively in areas where there is especially the only type of plants such as grass fields.

4.1.3.2 Filter

Depending on the source of water used in sprinkler irrigation system, irrigation water contains substances that can clog heads such as silt and organic matter. The filtration is performed to prevent clogging problems in short-and long-term in the system. Depending on the nature of water resources, it can be used to avoid clogging the heads of sand separator, hydro cyclone and disc filter. Due to mostly use of drinking water for landscape irrigation, filtering process is carried out with the disc or mesh filters. In sprinkler and drip irrigation systems, 80-120 mesh filters are usually preferred.

4.1.3.3 Valves

The sprinklers are the equipments which the water quantity supplied to the processing and accordingly are used to adjust the pressure in irrigation systems. In general, the valves divided into manual and automatic valves. Manual valves can be listed as ball valves, gate valves, butterfly valves. In landscape irrigation, irrigation control is carried out with the help of automatic valves. The control valves used in the different points of landscape control the direction to various processing of the water in the system according to different requirements (Figure 2). The check valves that are installed sprinkler heads, they prevent back flow of water when the system is turned off.

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Fig. 2. Control Valve and Application Sample