Brick

The material. Brick is as old as Babylon (4000 BC) and as durable. It is the most ancient of all manmade building materials. The regularity and pro­portions of bricks make them easy to lay in a variety of patterns, and their durability makes them an ideal material for building construction. Clay, the raw material from which bricks are made, is available almost everywhere; finding the energy to fire them can be more of a problem. Pure clay is gray – white in color; the red color of most bricks comes from impurities of iron oxide.

Composition

Bricks are fired clays, fine particulate alumino-silicates that derive from the weathering of rocks.

The proportions and regularity of brick make it fast to assemble. Brick weathers well, and the texture and color make it visually attractive.

Ecoproperties: material

Annual world production

*5 X 107

– 5.1 X 107

tonne/yr

Embodied energy, primary production

2.2

– 3.5

MJ/kg

CO2 footprint, primary production

0.2

– 0.23

kg/kg

Water usage

*2.8

– 8.4

l/kg

Eco-indicator value

27

– 29

millipoints/kg

Ecoproperties: processing

Construction energy

*0.054

– 0.066

MJ/kg

Construction CO2

*0.009

– 0.011

kg/kg

Recycling

Recycle fraction in current supply

15

– 20

О/

%

Typical uses. Domestic and industrial building, walls, paths, and roads.