Basic characteristics

Homogeneity, created by the use of one species or a combination of two supplementary tree species, i. e. birch and oak, or birch and wild cherry. Co-dominance, high uplifted crowns. Solitary shrubs and small trees in the undergrowth.

Key character species

Poplars, birch, ash, pine, oak and cherry (Figure 7.20).

Edges

Open edges could be favoured, stressing the importance of incoming light, the visual overview and homogeneity.

Field layer and establishment methods

A field layer dominated by grasses and high perennial herbs, and young tree plants, develops spontaneously. Establishment methods include direct seeding of shadow – tolerant grasses and herbs belonging to the inner edge zone.

Basic management principles

More regular but careful thinnings. No selection of main trees as a basic principle.

The many layered woodland type

Basic characteristics

Species-rich plantation—there can be as many species as individuals. The more layers and the more species, the more important is the careful design and management, based on the special strategies each species have and their characteristic groupings in a very diverse type of woodland system. These woodlands are characterised by a many layered, species-rich high woodland, but are often also found with open glades, meadow corridors, individually open grown trees, and thickets of shrubs as part of its structure. As a basic principle for long-term coexistence, there has to be a balance between light-

Basic characteristics

7.20(a)

Light high woodland: middle-aged birch stand from southern Finland—further south in Europe other species, such as Betula ermani or B. jackmontii, can replace the European species if the wish is to have white stems

Basic characteristics

7.20(b)

Light high woodland: old Populus stand in Sjoarp makes a strong effect in a local recreational landscape with its contrast of dark giving stands to the surroundings

Basic characteristics

7.20(c)

Light high woodland: open pine stand, with its strong response in its character to the climate limitations, with its low height, the leaning stems and the poor but lightdemanding field layer (Madrid, Spain)

demanding species in the upper layers and more shadow-tolerant species the lower you come in the system. A full use of native species belonging to these kind of systems can create a fascinating landscape experience, with most of what is considered as a woodland at its best, and with many characteristic individual trees, dramatic interactions between neighbours living extremely close to each other, each finding their own niche, and, in turn, the pattern as a whole giving a strong harmonious experience with the stems, the layers and the colourful carpets of flowers in spring.