• a dense, varied scrub type, characterised by its diversity and richness in form
• high scrub with solitary trees or groups of trees as a mixture between a homogeneous
base and elements that stick out
• high, even shrub type—a very homogeneous type
• combination of high and low shrubs
• low shrub with solitary trees
• low, even shrub.
Key character species
The key species consist mostly of shrub species. However, to some degree we also find some tree species among the important species, but very few herbs and grasses of importance. Indigenous shrub systems have a lot of qualities for local flora and fauna, their hardiness, flowering period and their colourful autumn season. However, outside of this we also find all the possibilities that the use of exotic species can bring.
Among the indigenous key character species we find light-demanding shrubs, such as blackthorn and roses, or more shadow-tolerant species, such as Ribes alpinum, Sambucus species, Euonymus europaeas, Viburnum opulus, etc. When suitable, a lot of interest should also be directed to the many exotics with high ornamental qualities.
More often shrubs are part of a more open grass countryside landscape, found as isolated shrub islands but maybe even more common as part of a hedge landscape or a woodland edge. Notice the spontaneous expansion that is typical for many of the species; it can be an opportunity as well as a potential problem.
In order to extend the sustainability of shrubs, the shrub species can be planted in groups, separated from trees and taller scrub species. The selected trees should be light-giving rather than shadow-giving, and should have a small, narrow crown rather than a wide one. Moreover, the presence of tree species should be minimised in planting schemes to figures below 10%, and probably even much lower.