Sub-characteristics and sub-types

Low woodlands should still be very much related to the traditional coppice systems but should be regarded as something wider, and with other possible types and stages which fit into a city context. There are several distinct sub-types that should be identified:

• the more open grown, with close links to woodland meadow types

• the visually semi-open types

• the very dense type, with a closeness to shrub types

• a differentiation into different types based on the presence of standard trees and by the

height (‘high coppice systems’ and ‘low coppice systems’).

Key character species

Hazel, lime, Salix species, hawthorn, hornbeam, oak, beech, rowan, ash, maple, elm, alder, birch and bird cherry. Among the exotics, chestnut, Amelanchier species, Cercidiphyllum, Hamamelis, Pterocarya fraxinifolia, etc., should be considered as interesting, but more species should be tested (Dunnett 2003).

Planting scheme

A choice of key character species—many or one—in a mixture with nursery species. For some variants, nursery species should not be necessary, but, it could have disadvantages in the longer term. Consider how to place standard trees, as well as sensitive species that have to be controlled or helped.