Zones 3 and 4—the shallow water and swamp area

Along the edge of standing water bodies with a fluctuating water level (zone 3), Carex elata can develop to be the dominant species of a tall sedge swamp. It can be linked with a tall forb community outwards (zone 2) and with a reed swamp inwards. The typical reed swamp vegetation is dominated by a few very competitive species sending a dense net of rhizomes and roots through the saturated soil and protecting it from erosion (Table 8.4). The most widespread reed species, Phragmites australis, prefers edges of standing water bodies and invades wetlands too. In wastewater treatment wetlands, it is the most effective purifying species because its thick, aerenchymcontaining rhizomes optimise the site as a habitat for micro-organisms that aid the reduction of pollutants and nutrients (Wissing 1995) (Figure 8.16). Along streams and riversides Phragmites communities are substituted by Phalaris arundinacea. Its roots and rhizoms only penetrate a shallow soil – layer and are, therefore, not very effective at protecting river banks from erosion. Bioengineering objectives are best realised when Phragmites australis is used together with Schoenoplectus lacustris in transition zones to deep water. Rampantly spreading Carex species (such as C. acutiformis) are recommended for shallow water and wetland zones. Together with Carex elata, some other tussock species and low-growing or lesscompetitive rhizome perennials are suitable for a diverse planting design in several layers as explained above.

Menyanthes trifoliate and Potentilla palustris as ground-covers prefer meso – to oligotrophic water and mediate between zones 4, 3 and 2 as well because they develop floating mats toward zone 5. A wide range of inhabitable water depths is to be found by Calltriche palustris, Crassula recurva, Hippuris vulgaris, Hottonia palustris and Sparganium spp., being able to form very diverse bodies according to water-depth. The ‘land-type’ develops a tough,

Table 8.4. Shallow water and swamp area

Origin*

Soil/water

conditions

Height

(cm)

Flowering

Months

Flower

Colour

Dominant species (5-20/10 m2)

Carex elata

Eur

Mesotrophic

30-100

IV-V

green

Iris pseudacorus

Eur, As, N – Afr

Meso-eutrophic

80-100

V-VI

yellow

Nuphar advena

N-Am, S-As

Eutrophic

50-80

VI-IX

yellow

Pontederia

lanceolata+

N-Am

Eutrophic

80-120

VI-X

blue

Peltandra virginica

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

80-100

V-VI

green

Companion species (10-30/10 m?)

Butomus umbellatus

Eur, As

Eutrophic

50-100

VII

pink

Hippuris vulgaris

Eur, As, N­Am

Eutrophic

25-30

inconspicuous flowers

Iris laevigata

W-As, S-Am

Meso-eutrophic

70-80

VI-VII

blue

Lysimachia

thyrsiflora

Eur, As, N­Am

Oligo-

mesotrophic

70-80

V-VI

yellow

Mentha aquatica

Eur, As

Eutrophic

40-80

VII-IX

pink-lilac

Mimulus ringens

O-, N-Am

Mesotrophic

60-100

VI-VII

blue purple

Pontederia cordata

N-Am

Eutrophic

60-70

VI-IX

blue

Ranunculus flammula

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic, acid

20-50

VI-VIII

yellow

Ground-covers (20-40/10 m2)

Juncus ensifolius

N-Am

Mesotrophic

15-20

VII-X

brown-

black

Menyanthes trifoliata

Cosmopolitan

Oligo-

mesotrophic

15/30

V-VI

white

Nasturtium officinale

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic

20-80

V-X

white

Pilularia globulifera

Eur

Mesotrophic, acid

5-15

fern plant

Potentilla palustris

Cospoplolitan

Oligo-

mesotrophic

30-40

V-VI

brown-red

Sparganium

minimum

Eur

Mesotrophic

5-20

VI-IX

green

Veronica beccabunga

Eur, W-As

Meso-eutrophic

25-30

V-VIII

blue

Scattered plants (up to 30/10 m2)

Alisma lanceolatum

Eur, W-As

Eutrophic

50-60

VII-VIII

white

Alisma subcordatum

N-Am

Eutrophic

30-50

VII-VIII

white

Alisma plantago – aquatica

Eur, As

Eutrophic

40-100

VII-VIII

white

Baldellia

ranunculoides

Eur

Oligo-mesotr.

saltresist.

5-30

VII-X

white, pink

Juncus bulbosus

Eur

Oligo-mesotr.,

acid

5-15

VII-IX

brown

Orontium aquaticum

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

5-10

V-VI

yellow

Sagittaria latifolia

N-Am

Eutrophic

50-60

VI-VII

white

Sagittaria sagittifolia

Eur, W-As

Eutrophic

40-60

VI-VII

white

Monoculture species— 30/10m2)

only to combine with shallow ground

-cover species mentioned above (10-

Acorus calamus

S-, E-As

Meso-eutrophic

60-100

V-VI

white

Bolboschoenus

maritimus

Eur, As, E – Am

Meso-eutrophic

30-100

VI-VIII

brown

Cladium mariscus

Cosmopolitan

Oligot-mesot,

hard

80-200

VII-XI

brown

Cyperus longus

C-Eur, As

Mesotrophic

100-130

VII-IX

brown

Dulichium

arundinaceum

N-Am

Mesotrophic?

40-80

VII-IX

brown

Phragmites australis

Cosmopolitan

Meso-eutrophic

100-400

IX-I

brown

Ranunculus lingua

Eur, W-As

Meso-eutrophic

70/100

VI-VII

yellow

Schoenoplectus

lacustris

Eur, As

Eutrophic

200-250

VI-VIII

brown

Schoenopl.

tabernaemontani

Eur, As, N­Am

Eutrophic,

saltresistant

50-150

VI-VIII

brown

Sparganium erectum

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic

50-120

VI-VII

green

Sparganium simplex

Eur, As, N­Am

Meso-eutrophic

50-100

VI-VII

green

Typha angustifolia

Eur, As, N­Am

Meso-eutrophic

150-200

VI-X

brown

Typha latifolia

Cosmopolitan

Meso-eutrophic

150-200

VI-VII

black

Typha laxmannii

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic

120-160

VI-X

brown

Typha minima

Eur, As

Oligo-mesotr.,

hard

40-60

V-VII

brown

Typha shuttleworthii

Eur

Meso-eutrophic

90-120

VI-VII

grey-black

Zizania latifolia

As

Meso-eutrophic

100-150

flowering only climate

in warm

* Eur=Europe; As=Asia; Am=America; N=North; E=East; S=South; W=West; C=Central + Hardy if planted 50cm below water level

Table 8.5.

The water lily

area

Origin*

Soil/water

conditions

Water depth (cm)

Flowering

Months

Flower

Colour

Floating-leaved species (not fixed into the bottom with their roots)

Hydrocharis

morsus-ranae

Eur, As

Mesotrophic

>10

VII-VIII

white

Riccia fluitans

Eur, As, Am

Mesotrophic?

>10

moss plant

Salvinia natans

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic,

hard

>10

fern plant

Stratiotes aloides

Eur, As

Mesotrophic,

hard

>70

V-VI

white

Clump-forming and moderately running rooted floating-leaved species

Caltha natans

N-Am

Mesotrophic?

10-40

VI-IX

white

Nuphar japonica

E-As

Meso-eutrophic

70-120

VI-IX

yellow

Nuphar lutea

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic

70-120

VI-X

yellow

Nuphar minima

Eur, As

Oligotrophic,

acid

50-90

VI-IX

yellow

Nymphaea alba

Eur, W-As

Meso-eutrophic

80-120

VI-X

white

Nymphaea candida

Eur, W-As

Mesotrophic

70-100

VID-X

white

Nymphaea odorata

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

70-100

VI-X

pink

Nymphaea

tetragona+

N-As

Oligo-

mesotrophic

20-40

VI-X

white

Nymphaea tuberosa

N-Am

Meso-eutrophic

70-100

VI-X

white

Nymp. ‘Berthold’

Cultivar

Meso-eutrophic

40-60

VI-X

pink

Nymp.

‘Candidissima’

Cultivar

Meso-eutrophic

60-90

VI-X

white

Nymp.

‘Gladstoniana’

Cultivar

Meso-eutrophic

90-120

VI-X

white

Nymp. ‘Marliacea Carnea’

Cultivar

Meso-eutrophic

60-90

VI-X

white-pink

Nymp. ‘Moorei’

Cultivar

Meso-eutrophic

40-70

VI-X

yellow

Ranunculus

aquatilis

Cosmopolitan Mesotrophic

50-90

V-IX

white

Trapa natans

Eur, As

Eutrophic

50-120

VI-VIII

white

Monoculture rooted

species—very competitive and not to combine with other species

Nymphoides peltata

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic

40-100

VI-VIII

yellow

Persicaria

amphibia

Cosmopolitan

Meso-eutrophic

10-100

VI-VIII

pink

Potamogeton

natans

Cosmopolitan

Meso-eutrophic

40-100

inconspicuous

flowers

* Eur=Europe; As=Asia; Am=America; N=North; E=East; S=South; W=West; C=Central + Requires slight proctection in very cold climates

Table 8.6. Submerged zone community

Rooted species

Origin*

Soil/water

conditions

Water

depth

(cm)

Flowering

Months

Flower

Colour

Callitriche palustris

Cosmopolitan

Meso-eutrophic

>10

inconspicuous

flowers

flowers

Chara fragilis

Eur, As, Am

Oligo-

mesotrophic

>20

alga—plant

Eleocharis

acicularis

E-As, Am

Meso-eutrophic

>10

inconspicuous

flowers

Elodea canadensis

Am

Meso-eutrophic

>20

inconspicuous

flowers

Fontinalis

antipyretica

Eur, As, N­Am

Oligo-

mesotrophic

>30

moss—plant

Hottonia palustris

Eur, As

Meso-eutrophic,

acid

>10

V-VI

pink

Littorella uniflora

Eur

Oligotrophic

>20

inconspicuous

flowers

Myriophyllum

spicatum

Cosmopolitan

Oligo-eutrophic,

hard

>30 inconspicuous

flowers

Myriophyllum

verticillatum

Cosmopolitan

Meso-eutrophic

>30 inconspicuous

flowers

Nitella flexilis

Eur, As, Am

Oligotrophic,

acid

>20 alga—plant

Potamogeton

crispus

Cosmopolitan

Mesotrophic

>50 inconspicuous

flowers

Potamogeton lucens

Eur, As

Eutrophic, hard

>50 inconspicuous

flowers

Floating species (without roots)

Ceratophyllum

demersum

Cosmopolian

Eutrophic

>40 inconspicuous

flowers

Ceratophyllum

submersum

Eur, As

Eutrophic

>40 inconspicuous

flowers

Utricularia vulgaris

Cosmopolitan

Mesotrophic,

acid

>40 VII-VIII

yellow

* Eur=Europe; As=Asia; Am=America; N=North; E=East; S=South; W=West; C=Central

upright body, while the ‘submerged-type’ produces smooth, feathery leaves on soft branches, increasing the gas-exchanging plant surface. Floating branches develop to more or less dense growing blankets covering the water surface.