TOYS AND CRAFTS BASICS

Подпись: A coating of baby oil is applied to a child's rattle with a cloth while the toy is spinning on a lathe. Toys designed for children must be finished with a nontoxic product. Baby oily which is actually scented mineral oil, is one of the safest.image12

Most of the requirements for build­ing furniture—functional designs, proper tool setups and techniques, and safe work habits—are also crucial to making toys and crafts. But wooden toys, because they are intended for use by chil­

dren, involve other considerations. Foremost among these is safety. As shown below, toys intended for infants and toddlers have to be large enough that they cannot be swallowed and lodge in a child’s windpipe. And since children
explore as much with their mouths as with their hands, the wood species you use for your projects and the finish you apply—whether paint or a clear finish— must be non-toxic. The charts on page 13 rate the toxicity of various finishes and wood species.

Because many toys are made with turned parts, many of which are small, the lathe and scroll saw are two of the most commonly used tools. This chap­ter also explains how to set up both machines and provides information on some basic operations and techniques.

MAKING CHILD-SAFE TOYS

image13"Checking toys for size

If you are making a toy for an infant or tod­dler, you must ensure that neither the toy nor any detachable parts is so small that the child could swallow the piece and choke on it. The simple jig shown at right, consisting of a wood block with an oval hole drilled through it, will help you deter­mine whether a toy is sized properly. Mark the width of the oval—1% inch—by draw­ing two parallel lines across the board. Then adjust a compass to one-half this measurement and draw two circles within the lines so the oval opening formed by the circles will be T%> inches long. Drill out the opening. If any part of a toy, like the rattle shown, can pass through the hole, it is unsafe for a young child.

Подпись: The chart above lists wood finishes that are considered safe for toys that children may put into their mouths. Refrain from using any other product—even if it is labeled as being nontoxic or the Materials Safety Data Sheet compiled for the product (available from the manufacturer) does not include any toxic substances. A toxin must be present in concentrations greater than 1 percent to be listed, and many such substances, such as metallic driers added to finishes, usually comprise less than 1 percent. Even after a finish is fully cured, rough handling can cause a small portion of the finish to flake off and Подпись: be ingested. As a result, any toxic ingredient in a finishing product is potentially harmful. After applying a finish, make sure that the surface is completely dry before giving the toy to a child. Paints that are safe once fully dry may give off harmful volatiles as they cure. And do not assume that a paint or finish is completely cured when it is dry to the touch. Some products can take months to cure completely; refer to the label instructions for drying times. The chart also distinguishes between products that penetrate the wood or simply remain on the surface.

CHILD-SAFE FINISHES

Baby oil

SAFE FINISHES

Penetrating

SAFE FINISHES

Pure walnut oil

Penetrating

Mineral oil

Penetrating

Carnauba wax

Surface

Beeswax

Surface

Non-toxic paint with

Surface

Shellac Paraffin wax Raw linseed oil Pure tung oil

Surface

Surface

Penetrating

Penetrating

the seal of the Arts and Crafts Materials Institute or the words “conforms to the ASTMD-4236"

Modeler’s enamel paint

Surface

TOXIC WOODS

TOXIC WOODS TOXIC WOODS TOXIC WOODS

Arbor vitae

R

European spruce

RS

Satinwood, Ceylon

S

Black spruce

RS

Imbuia

RS

Silky-oak

R

S

Boxwood

R S

Iroko

R S

Teak

R

S

California redwood

R ST

Lacewood

R S

Wenge

R

S

Cashew

S

Mahogany

RS

Western red cedar

R

ST

Cocobolo

R S

Pine

RS

Ebony

R ST

Red cedar

R S

R= Respiratory ailments S= Skin and eye irritations

European larch

R S

Rosewood

RS

T= Toxic effects

The dust from many wood species can pose health risks ranging from respiratory ailments to skin and eye irritations. Some woods contain chemicals that can cause toxic effects. The chart above lists a number of species and their possible health effects.