Experimental

1.3 Preparation of PVA-acid red mud nanocomposite materials and organically modified red mud nanocomposite materials

10% (w/v) aqueous solution of PVA was prepared by dissolving 10g of dried powdered PVA in 100ml of distilled water at a temperature of 100 oC with continuous stirring. Polymer modified red mud nanocomposite (PRM) films were made by mixing different loading percentage of acid modified red mud and organically modified red mud into the virgin PVA solution. The PVA-red mud solution thus obtained was sonicated for better dispersion and removal of any air bubble present in the solution. The solution was cast on the plane glass surface and dried at room temperature. The composition of the PRM materials was varied from 0 to 5 wt % of RM with respect to the PVA content.

1.4 Red mud loading levels

Sample index

PVA

SP1

SP2

SP3

SP4

SP5

SP6

SP7

% Loading of boric acid mod. red mud

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Sample index

PVA

CP1

CP2

CP3

CP4

CP5

CP6

CP7

% Loading of organically mod. red mud

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Sample index

PVA

PRM1

PRM2

PRM3

PRM4

PRM5

PRM6

PRM7

% Loading of Phosphomolybdic acid mod. red mud

0

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

4.0

5.0

Table 2. Sample Designation