Other measurements

Measurements of the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (Singh and et al. 2007) were used also for the evaluation of bone mineral contents and bone mineral density in a number of experimental investigations: (Puumalainen, Sikanen et al. 1979; Kerr and et al. 1980; Karellas, Leichter et al. 1983; Webster and Lillicrap 1985; Parthasaradhi, Esposito et al. 1992; Manohara and et al. 2008). These measurements have been made with radioactive sources at various scattering angles with samples of tissue or bone equivalent materials. (Speller and Horrocks 1991) and (Shakeshaft and et al. 1997) have introduced applications of this technique in the fields of medicine and biology. This technique has also been tested for some elements with atomic number satisfying, 26 < Z < 82, by (Igelli and Erzeneoglu 2002) and (Igelli 2006).

Duvauchelle in (Duvauchelle, Peix et al. 1999; Duvauchelle, Peix et al. 2000) have concluded that the Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio depends only on the mixture under study and provides a non-destructive technique to measure the Zeff of composite materials and the Z-number of unknown elements (Singh and et al. 2007). They suggested that a given Zeff must define a mixture on the basis of the intensity ratio of Rayleigh to Compton scattering, as a single atom is characterized by its atomic number. This technique utilizes the strong dependence of the Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio on the effective atomic number of the scattering medium. One of the major advantages of this method is that by taking the ratio of the Rayleigh to Compton scattered photons, a number of parameters such as absolute source strength, solid angles subtended by source and the detector at the target are eliminated in the expression of the ratio technique, otherwise these parameters introduce a large amount of error in the measured results(Singh and et al. 2007).