The urinal can be a very practical fixture in the home. The toilet is designed for seating. However, when men stand to urinate at the toilet, the urine spray may not stay in the bowl. Spray on the floor and around the toilet area can cause discoloration, staining, and odor. Men and boys of all ages can use the urinal with better control.
The height of the front lip of the bowl of the urinal off the floor should be 19 1/2 inches (495 mm) for children and 24 inches (610 mm) for adults. In a custom installation, plan the lip of the urinal at 3 inches (76 mm) below the man’s pants inseam.
It is recommended that the urinal be placed 18 inches (457 mm) on center from a side obstacle, such as a toilet or wall. The minimum centerline distance is 1 5 inches (381 mm). Make sure at least 3 inches (76 mm) of clearance is allowed from the edge of the urinal to a side wall. A protective, durable wall surface material should cover at least 12 inches (305 mm) on either side of the urinal.
Flooring beneath, and in front of the urinal, should be of a durable material, as well.
The recommended clearance in front of the urinal is 30 inches (762 mm), the same as for other bath fixtures. The minimum clearance allowed is 21 inches (533 mm). Refer to chapter 3, "Environmental and Sustainability Considerations," to learn more about selecting water-efficient urinals.
Guidelines and Access Standards
The Bathroom Planning Guidelines and Access Standards that are important to the toileting area are 4, 14, 20, 21,22, and 23. For the complete Guidelines and Access Standards, see Appendix A.
The bathroom is an important part of any home and often a bathroom is located in both private and social areas. All bathrooms are composed of a combination of centers where the major activities of the bathroom occur: grooming, bathing/showering, and toileting. Planning a bathroom using the center concept encourages the designer to examine and use the NKBA Bathroom Planning Guidelines and Access Standards for each area. The Planning Guidelines are based on human factors and the 2012 International Residential Code. The Bathroom Access Standards are based on the 2009 International Code Council ANSI 1.117.
There are many decisions and details involved in creating a space plan for a bathroom that is functional and useable. Not only must the designer consider the client’s needs and the physical space, the selection of products and materials in relation to the spatial requirements should also be considered. A certain style of lavatory or bathtub may be selected because of space and planning restrictions. On the other hand, the space may be arranged to accommodate the desired fixture or activity. There may be several ways that the bathroom could be planned depending on the choices that you make.
Budget, time, and space restrictions will influence how you incorporate the Guidelines within the parameters of each bathroom design. Of course, local building codes will have to be met and should be referenced during the design process. The Bathroom Planning Guidelines incorporate several building code requirements that must be followed when planning a bathroom: for instance, minimum space clearances, and requirements related to windows, doors, and access panels.
Beyond building codes, the Bathroom Planning Guidelines provide recommendations for space clearances at the entry and at each fixture. Universal design recommendations are also incorporated into the Planning Guidelines. Recommendations for slip-resistant flooring, rounded counter edges, grab bars at bathing and shower fixtures, and seating in the shower are helpful features that will make the bathroom safer.
Multiple Bathroom Access Standards also have been incorporated into this chapter’s discussion of planning for a variety of users. Chapter 8, "Accessibility in Practice," provides a more detailed discussion of universal and accessible design concepts arranged according to user groups. This is a great place to look for ideas that might be useful if your client is older, has children, has a unique mobility or handedness requirement, or has sensory or cognitive impairments.
Remember that infrastructure requirements also must be considered. There are also decisions related to mechanical systems. Lighting, ventilation, heat, and placement of receptacles have been referred to in this chapter, but in chapter 7, "Mechanical Planning," there are more details (and Guidelines) related to these areas. Be sure you are familiar with these recommendations and requirements when you start to design a space.
Until you have mastered the planning criteria, be prepared to refer to the Bathroom Planning Guidelines and Access Standards. A quick reference for these Guidelines and Standards are in Appendix A.
1. Describe the types of bathrooms in the privacy areas and in the social areas of the home. (See under "Types and Locations of Bathrooms" page 145)
2. List and discuss the Bathroom Planning Guidelines used to plan the entry, ceiling height, and circulation spaces of the bathroom. (See "Design Recommendations" page 154)
3. List and discuss the Bathroom Planning Guidelines used to design the grooming center of the bathroom. Identify which of these are building code requirements. (See "Design Recommendations for Grooming Center" page 201)
4. List and discuss the Bathroom Planning Guidelines used to design the bathing center of the bathroom. Identify which of these are building code requirements. (See "Design Recommendations for Bathing" page 179)
5. List and discuss the Bathroom Planning Guidelines used to design the showering center of the bathroom. Identify which of these are building code requirements. (See "Design Recommendations for Showering" page 187)
6. List and discuss the Bathroom Planning Guidelines used to design the toileting center of the bathroom. Identify which of these are building code requirements. (See "Design Recommendations for Toileting Center" page 195)