Maritime Application of Control Systems

Margareta Lutzhoft and Monica Lundh

CONTENTS

9.1 Introduction to Ship Control Centres………………………………………………………. 228

9.2 Background…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 228

9.2.1 The Bridge…………………………………………………………………………………… 228

9.2.2 The Engine Control Room………………………………………………………….. 229

9.3 The Situation Today……………………………………………………………………………….. 230

9.3.1 The Way Ahead: Understanding Each Other……………………………… 232

9.3.2 Design of Ship Control Centres…………………………………………………… 233

9.3.3 Regulatory Support for Usability………………………………………………… 234

9.3.3.1 The Bridge……………………………………………………………………… 234

9.3.3.2 Engine Control Room……………………………………………………. 234

9.4 Design of the Bridge………………………………………………………………………………… 235

9.4.1 Specific Design Aspects……………………………………………………………….. 237

9.4.2 Illumination and Lighting……………………………………………………………. 237

9.4.3 Moving Around…………………………………………………………………………… 241

9.4.4 Bridge Layout……………………………………………………………………………… 242

9.4.4.1 Workstation for Navigating and Manoeuvring……………… 243

9.4.4.2 Workstation for Monitoring…………………………………………… 243

9.4.4.3 Workstation for Manual Steering (the Helmsman’s

Workstation)…………………………………………………………………… 243

9.4.4.4 Workstation for Docking (Bridge Wing)………………………… 244

9.4.4.5 Workstation for Planning and Documentation……………… 244

9.4.4.6 Workstation for Safety………………………………………………….. 244

9.4.4.7 Workstation for Communication………………………………….. 244

9.5 Design of the Engine Control Room……………………………………………………….. 247

9.5.1 Engine Control Room Layout…………………………………………………….. 250

9.5.1.1 Workstation for Normal Operation………………………………… 252

9.5.1.2 Workstation for Monitoring…………………………………………… 253

9.5.1.3 Workstation for Emergency Operations………………………… 253

9.5.1.4 Workstation for Planning and Documentation……………… 253

9.5.1.5 Workstation for Administrative Duties………………………….. 253

9.5.1.6 Workstation for Safety………………………………………………….. 253

9.5.1.7 Workstation for Communication………………………………….. 253

9.5.1.8 Workstation for the Stand-by Area……………………………….. 253

9.5.2 Small Engine Control Rooms……………………………………………………… 253

9.6 Alarms……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255

9.6.1 Alarm Management and Design…………………………………………………. 256

9.6.2 Visual Alarms………………………………………………………………………………. 257

9.6.3 Audible Alarms……………………………………………………………………………. 258

9.7 Health Hazards……………………………………………………………………………………….. 258

9.8 System Safety…………………………………………………………………………………………. 258

9.8.1 Survivability………………………………………………………………………………… 259

9.8.2 Joint Communication………………………………………………………………….. 259

Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 259

Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………………………………………… 260

References and Further Reading………………………………………………………………………… 260

9.1 INTRODUCTION TO SHIP CONTROL CENTRES

This chapter deals mainly with marine applications of control systems on board ships. However, over the past few decades, there has also been a development in the technology of management and control of seagoing traffic. This applies to particular phases of a sea voyage, for example, in the approach phases and when navigating narrow channels such as the English Channel and narrow straits such as the Malacca Strait. These types of control systems are increasingly becoming very similar to the traditional traffic control systems. In the past radio communications were used almost exclusively. Nowadays, these advance systems of traffic control and traffic management at sea will hopefully increase safety at sea. They may also change the role of pilots and harbourmasters, and their relations to the deck officers. Control centres and control rooms on board ships are obviously central to safety at sea. These are also a good example of more specialised forms of control centres. There are also similarities with developments in other areas of control rooms, in particular those applied to traffic control and traffic flow management in general.