The majority of the areas that were initially designated as biosphere reserve areas were large mountainous regions such as Seolak Mountain and Jeju Island: these regions were characterized by a high level of biodiversity because their geographic situation led to their ecosystems remaining largely untarnished by man. The Seville Strategy for Biosphere Reserves recommended that so long as damage to the ecological environment could be avoided, various development strategies could be established (UNESCO MAB 2008). For instance, by expanding the zones, for example, the buffer and transition zones, the proclivity for biological diversity – centered isolated biosphere reserves could be overcome and sustainable use of such areas could be ensured. The SDBR boasts the minimum-sized core zone needed to qualify for the conservation of biospecies and ecosystems. The core zone is currently protected under existing institutions established by the national and provincial parks. The buffer and transition zones are regarded as experimental spaces in the biosphere reserve area within which the economic system and
Roles and contents
Establishment and implementation of management policy, assuring of the budget
Think tanks, field study/data accumulation, measures for optimum utilization
Actualization of the policy measures and research findings developed by the government and research institutes
Provision of advice regarding measures related to the management of development, suggestion of measures to facilitate the use of international networks
indigenous culture that has long prevailed can be augmented while promoting the harmonious development of nature and man, for instance, agriculture, fishing, and sea salt. As such, a sustainable economic system is expected to develop in the buffer and transition zones.
The actual management of the biosphere reserve area is predicated on the main actors involved in its management playing their role in an organic manner. Although a management committee has been established in Jeonnam Province, it remains necessary to supplement the functions of this committee. To this end, the main actors involved in the conservation and management of UNESCO biosphere reserves should be the ‘residents.’ Domestic and international case studies have shown that the participation of residents has been instrumental in determining the success of the management of UNESCO biosphere reserve areas. Therefore, it becomes very important to establish the structure and functions of a management committee that can be used to conserve the ecosystem and traditional culture within the UNESCO SDBR; to establish a sustainable economic system; and to encourage community activities designed to improve the residents’ quality of life. The Korean National Commission for UNESCO should cooperate with research institutes to ensure that local communities voluntarily participate in the conservation and management of UNESCO biosphere reserve areas.
Jeonnam Province established the ‘Rules Regarding the Management of Biosphere Reserve Areas in Jeonnam Province’ (March 19, 2010). The organization and objectives of this management committee were spelled out as follows: “A Management Committee for Biosphere Reserve Areas in Jeonnam Province shall be established to ensure the effective management of biosphere reserve areas in Jeonnam Province and review important management measures.” The management committee is responsible for reviewing important matters related to biosphere reserve areas, and in particular makes decisions pertaining to the three following matters: first, matters related to designation and changes within the biosphere reserve area; second, matters related to the establishment and execution of management and implementation plans for biosphere reserve areas; and third, matters related to the improvement of the biosphere reserve area-related collaboration between government agencies and other organizations (Table 9.4).
Table 9.5 Functional classification of the comprehensive management system (CMS) for the SDBR
Investigation and accumulation of basic materials through integrated monitoring Development and use of Islands Geographic Information Systems (IGIS) Integrated management measures designed to conserve biological diversity Establishment of a residential community based on the participation and organization of local residents
Search for measures to develop and activate indigenous industries run by local residents as a scenery industry
Measures for the commercialization through products management Attachment and distribution of eco-labeling
Development of eco-tourism and sustainable development education programs using indigenous knowledge Training of local eco-cultural tourism guides Development of education-oriented tourism programs Educational program: programs for local residents/regular people Development of various cultural contents using local cultural prototypes Establishment of a Visitor Center and related management body Establishment of an integrated monitoring center Preparation of a landscape ecological planning map
Measure for SDBR PR (CI development, installment of signs and boards, etc.) Development of renewable energy
Identification of the marine pollution problem as an international issue Establishment of international networks
Application for expansion of the biosphere reserve area and designation as a World Mixed Cultural and Natural Heritage
According to the ‘Rules Regarding the Management of Biosphere Reserve Areas in Jeonnam Province,’ the management committee should be composed of 25 members (3 official positions and 22 appointed positions) selected for 2-year terms. A look at the composition of the management committee reveals that the number of members hailing from local and state governments outnumbers those whose background is related to academic research institutes and NGOs, thus meaning that the ability to implement and evaluate the actual management plans is lessened. Furthermore, the fact that no local representatives have participated in the management committee can also be pointed out as a problem. To this end, it is necessary to reorganize the composition of the management committee in a manner that facilitates the actual management of biosphere reserve areas (Table 9.5). Moreover, it is essential that a comprehensive management system (CMS) that makes possible the management of biosphere reserve areas in an integrated manner be established. The items that fall under the individual functions of SDBR management include the following.
The SDBR management plan must include the forging of organic relationships between various programs, such as those related to local communities, the activation of indigenous industries, the development of cultural contents, IGIS systems, landscape planning and management, and integrated monitoring program (Table 9.5). This goal can be achieved by entrenching a comprehensive management system (CMS).
The comprehensive management system (CMS) for the SDBR has been focused on the actual operation and management of individual programs. To this end, the comprehensive management system (CMS) for the SDBR is designed in a manner that revolves around the functions of conservation and development. Meanwhile, the logistic support function, which is strongly related to policy making, is designed to foster collaboration outside the comprehensive management system (CMS).
Acknowledgments This work was funded by Jeonnam Green Environment Center, Jeollanam – do. This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant by the Korean Government (MEST)”(NRF-2009-361-A00007). Our thanks to UNESCO MAB Korea and Jeollanam-do Province, Republic of Korea for their valuable information. This paper was presented in 8th IALE World Congress at Beijing, China (18-23 August 2011).