The rate of deforestation has remained at 14 million ha annually since 1990. Most (78.6 %) of this decrease has occurred in tropical rainforests, which have large CO2 absorption capabilities. The tropics have high socioeconomic dependency on natural resources (Amelgia et al. 2009), and land-use management schemes and guidelines are lenient or poorly designed (Caesariantica et al. 2011; Firdaus et al. 2011; Raharjo and Nakagoshi 2012). In fact, deforestation and cultivation in
Themes and Framework of WUBR in GELs Program
2a. Effect on CO2 absorption 3. Development of multistage sensing system
4. Development of new energy 5. Low-carbon technology
Fig. 1.1 Themes and framework of the Wise Use of Biomass Resources (WUBR) research group of the Global Environmental Leaders (GELs) program of Hiroshima University. The major research results are shown in the references. Concerning the chapters in this book, we included papers that are related to two or more themes among the five themes in this figure. All articles conformed to the low carbon technologies and societies. (Redrawn from HICEC 2009)
Southeast Asia account for about 75 % of the total release of carbon to the atmosphere. Such ecosystem disturbances brought about by human activities not only decrease the standing carbon stocks in ecosystems but also fragment and inhibit the regeneration of ecosystems (Abdullah and Nakagoshi 2008; Kaswanto et al. 2010; Lubis and Nakagoshi 2011). Given this situation, the introduction of ecosystem management to stimulate sustainable natural resource usage and carbon sink protection in developing counties is an emergency issue. Within this framework, the WUBR group has set five areas as priorities for research and education (Fig. 1.1). This book was designed to help in the landscape ecological training of graduate students and young researchers in universities and allied institutions. The synthesized ideas and technologies through these 19 chapters are easy to understand, and the vast list of references can be useful.