Indirect Benefits from Pekarangan

There are also some benefits that could be derived indirectly from pekarangan other than those already mentioned: benefits to women, wealth or position in labor markets, access to obtain credit, additional income-generating activities, post­production activities, and also as storage.

The role of women in pekarangan is hypothetically an impact by the selection of plants and animals. This condition impacts biodiversity inside pekarangan indirectly, and most of them tried to introduce new species to the pekarangan. The sensitivity of woman to beautification is believed to increase introduction of exotic species that in the future will have an impact on native species in the protected area. Pekarangan also represents the woman’s freedom from dependence from their neighbors. They try to show their ability to develop pekarangan into a beautiful place for social gathering.

The market also sometimes tends to influence the pekarangan condition. The households try to plant commercial trees that can be sold at market. However, in a small-scale pekarangan, the households only try to fulfill their subsistence needs; when they have more they will give it to their neighbors. Pekarangan also provided access to obtain credit from an informal lender or formal financial agency [village bank, Koperasi Unit Desa (KUD) village cooperative system]. Additional income that can be derived when someone has pekarangan is the opportunity to develop a small-scale home industry.

Some respondents also said that pekarangan also have been used for post­harvest activities such as drying and threshing. They received some money from people who used their pekarangan for those activities. Pekarangan also provide space for storing harvest production, tools, fertilizer, and other items related to farming activities.