Landscape degradation is caused by land-use and land cover changes. We hope to discuss ecosystem management strategies that balance sustainable natural resources usage and carbon sink protection among different types of ecosystems. For example, the Wise Use of Biomass Resources (WUBR) group investigated the losses of ecosystem services in devastated ecosystems and landscapes such as forests (Raharjo and Nakagoshi 2012; Mabuhay and Nakagoshi 2012), bamboo thickets (Suzuki and Nakagoshi 2008; Someya et al. 2009), savannahs (Caesariantica et al. 2011), grasslands (Lee and Nakagoshi 2010), and arable lands (Tokuoka et al. 2011). Appropriate management is also needed for rivers (Kohri et al. 2011) and wetlands (Byomkesh et al. 2009), including groundwater regulation (Pan and Nakagoshi 2008; Pan et al. 2008, 2011).
1.2.1 Effects of Ecosystem Degradation on CO2 Absorption and Emission
Isolation of habitat causes genetic differentiation in temperate plants (Kaneko et al. 2008; Kondo et al. 2009). Extinction often occurs among smaller populations, particularly in endemic plants (Abe et al. 2008). Similarly, in the tropics fragmentation of ecosystems and decreasing population density as a result of both land-use changes and natural resource usage may inhibit the regeneration of a plant species through isolation among its local populations. Therefore, such human activities depress the future ability of ecosystems to serve as carbon sinks and decrease the standing carbon pools in the ecosystems. It is necessary to investigate the effects of isolation using field surveys and genetic marker analysis in the ecosystems of developing countries. In addition, soil respiration and greenhouse gas emission from ecosystems can be investigated by assessing temporal changes in the microorganisms and fauna linked with land use and ecosystem management (Mabuhay and Nakagoshi 2012).